Department of Geosciences



  • Thomas S. Duffy

Associate Chair

  • Frederik J. Simons

Director of Undergraduate Studies

  • Adam C. Maloof

Director of Graduate Studies

  • John A. Higgins


  • Curtis A. Deutsch
  • Thomas S. Duffy
  • Stephan A. Fueglistaler
  • Adam C. Maloof
  • Satish C. Myneni
  • Michael Oppenheimer
  • Allan M. Rubin
  • Blair Schoene
  • Daniel M. Sigman
  • Frederik J. Simons
  • Jeroen Tromp
  • Gabriel A. Vecchi
  • Bess Ward

Associate Professor

  • John A. Higgins

Assistant Professor

  • Jie Deng
  • Ching-Yao Lai
  • Elizabeth Niespolo
  • Laure Resplandy
  • Xinning Zhang

Lecturer with Rank of Professor

  • Venkatachalam Ramaswamy


  • Thomas L. Delworth
  • Leo Donner
  • Stephen T. Garner
  • Stephen M. Griffies
  • Robert W. Hallberg
  • Larry W. Horowitz
  • Yi Ming
  • Raj Moulik
  • Rong Zhang
For a full list of faculty members and fellows please visit the department or program website.

Program Information

Information and Departmental Plan of Study

The intellectual excitement of modern geosciences is fueled by our exploration of the dynamic forces and delicate balances that mold our planet and have rendered it conducive to life for much of its history. Our landscape is continually reshaped by the movement of cold continents atop the hot, viscous mantle, and our lives are altered by the earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that attend their collision. Rocks that cover Earth's surface sink to great depths and transform under enormous temperatures and pressures, perhaps to be uplifted as mountains and exposed to future generations by the forces of erosion. The ocean and atmosphere engage in a continuous and complex dialogue that controls Earth's climate. Chemical reactions operating within microorganisms and on a variety of mineral and other natural surfaces are integrated into large geochemical fluxes, which distribute the resources needed for life, and life in turn alters these fluxes. This process operates within the framework of biological evolution, in which diverse organisms appear, evolve, and vanish, sometimes leaving a transfigured world in their wake. All of these processes influence our daily lives in profound and surprising ways.

Many of the great challenges to humanity, today and in the future, involve processes that are studied by Earth scientists, leading to a rapidly increasing role for the field in issues of environmental regulation and public policy. A background in the Earth sciences is an essential component of contemporary education. Practicing geoscientists study nature both in the field and in the lab. To an ever-increasing degree, they must quantify observations with the aim of not only describing the past but also predicting the future of our planet, often with the aid of rigorous laboratory and field experiments, and intensive computation and modeling. The diversity of processes that characterize Earth as a whole requires geosciences to be an extraordinarily interdisciplinary field with direct connections to mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, and computer science. As a result of these connections, the geosciences department frequently draws students from many backgrounds. Many of our most successful graduates begin their undergraduate careers in subjects ranging from physics to English. The Department of Geosciences (link is external) welcomes this intellectual variety, and our undergraduate program allows flexibility while stressing the importance of a sound understanding of the basic sciences.


Prerequisites for declaring the geosciences concentration vary by track, but all require MAT 104, COS 126, and either GEO 202 or GEO 203.

The Microbiology (MB), Environmental Geochemistry (EC), and Oceans, Atmosphere, and Climate (OA) tracks all require GEO 202. The Geology and Earth History (GE) and Geophysics (GP) tracks require GEO 203. 

By the end of junior year, students in every specialization must take either GEO 422 or ORF 245.

If a student meets one set of prerequisites but would like to switch specializations, accommodations can be made with a member of the Undergraduate Work Committee (UWC).

General Requirements

The concentration in geosciences requires 14 courses. In addition to the three prerequisites and either GEO 422 or ORF 245, each track in the geosciences concentration requires four core math and science requirements, two core GEO requirements, and four electives. The particular requirements are determined by the student's track of study.

Microbiology (MB) track:

Core math and science requirements are EEB 211, MOL 214, CHM 201, and CHM 202; core GEO requirements are GEO 363 and GEO 417. Students then choose four electives from the following list:  GEO 362, GEO 416, GEO 418, GEO 428, MOL 345, MOL 380.

Environmental Geochemistry (EC) track:

Core math and science requirements are MOL 214, CHM 201, CHM 202, and PHY 103; core GEO requirements are GEO 363 and GEO 360.  Students then choose four electives from the following list: GEO 361, GEO 369, GEO 370, GEO 417, GEO 418, GEO 428, GEO 470, FRS, CHM 301, CEE 311, CEE 306/307, CEE 471.

Oceans, Atmosphere, and Climate (OA) track:

Core math and science requirements are MAT 201, MAT 202, CHM 201, and PHY 103; core GEO requirements are GEO 361 and GEO 425. Students then choose four electives from the following list: GEO 362, GEO 363, GEO 366, GEO 367, GEO 368, GEO 427, GEO 428, GEO 203, FRS, MAE 305.

Geology and Earth History (GE) track:

Core math and science requirements are MAT 202, CHM 201, CHM 202, and PHY 103; core GEO requirements are GEO 362 and GEO 464.  Students then choose four electives from the following list:  GEO 378, GEO 372, GEO 370, GEO 373, GEO 365, GEO 202, FRS, MAE 305, MAE 221.

Geophysics (GP) track:

Core math and science requirements are MAT 201, MAT 202, PHY 103 or 105, and PHY 104 or 106; core GEO requirements are GEO 371 or GEO 422 and MAE 305.  Students then choose four electives from the following list:  GEO 419, GEO 424, GEO 441, GEO 422, GEO 464, GEO 370, GEO 202, FRS.

In addition to these courses, the Junior Colloquium is a weekly luncheon meeting, convened during the fall term, to teach juniors basic techniques in proposal writing and analytical computing. This one-hour colloquium is mandatory for all geosciences concentrators.

All students considering a concentration in the department should see the director of undergraduate studies (DUS). Students are encouraged to consult as soon as possible, even as first-year students, to aid in the design of a course of study. The department offers an open house in both the fall and spring terms to introduce prospective students to departmental courses, faculty, students, and research interests.

For full details, see the department's website (link is external).

Certificate Programs

The department offers a certificate program in geological engineering in collaboration with the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, which is described in the entry for the Program in Geological Engineering. The department also cooperates in the certificate programs in environmental studies, materials science and engineering, planets and life, and teacher preparation. Several geosciences courses fulfill the requirements of these certificate programs.

Geosciences Advisers

Each geosciences junior and senior is assigned an adviser, who is a faculty member and part of the Undergraduate Work Committee. Students are expected to meet regularly with their advisers for discussions on curriculum, course selection, choice of junior and senior research paper topics, study abroad plans, and the like. Once the courses have been selected in consultation with the adviser, students turn in their signed fall and spring course worksheet to the undergraduate coordinator. Any course changes also should be discussed and approved by the adviser or the DUS. At the beginning of each academic year, students will be informed who their geosciences advisers are.

Independent Work

Please begin by examining the Geosciences Junior Paper and Senior Thesis Guide (link is external).

Junior Independent Work

All juniors are required to conduct independent research in both the fall and spring terms. Each term, this work includes a written progress report, final written report, and a poster presentation of the student's final JP work.  Faculty members will evaluate student poster presentations and submit feedback and grades. Although geoengineers are not required to conduct JP research, some geoengineers have conducted independent research in geosciences or engineering for course credit.

Different research topics are available in any given year and some ideas are listed in the Shopping Guide, which students obtain from the undergraduate coordinator. Students are encouraged to consult with their faculty advisers for suggestions regarding selection of the JP project. If students have other exciting ideas for possible JP projects, they are encouraged to consult their faculty advisers to discuss the feasibility of pursuing them.

The fall JP consists of a research proposal. The proposal includes a statement of the hypothesis you are proposing to test, a literature review that motivates your work, and preliminary data collection (i.e., fieldwork, laboratory analysis, and/or data mining) and analysis that convinces the reader you will be able to test your central hypothesis. The fall JP is introduced as a poster presentation to the geosciences department prior to submitting a final written report.

The spring JP project is a full scientific research paper. A student may choose to work on the same topic they proposed in the fall, or on a completely new topic with a new adviser. All spring JP work must include original data analysis; a literature review by itself does not qualify as a JP project. Many opportunities for collecting data are available, either through the student's own efforts (including fieldwork, experiments conducted in any of the several laboratories in the department, and computer simulations) or by accessing databases made available by and for the scientific community at large. The spring JP is presented as a poster to the geosciences department prior to submitting a final written report.

Proposals for funding to support independent work are due in late September/early October for the fall JP, and mid-February for the spring JP (but please see the ST/JP Guide for details each year as the due dates are subject to change). Part of the JP grade is awarded based on two reports submitted at two different milestones during the semester. The final grade for both fall and spring independent research is based on the quality of the research and the written and oral work of the student.

Senior Independent Work

The senior research thesis project involves a more in-depth study in the chosen topic and is a full-year effort. Students should budget their time accordingly. Each geosciences senior will choose an appropriate faculty member as their senior thesis adviser in consultation with the departmental adviser and the faculty members who support the student's interests. The student is expected to conduct research in the adviser's laboratory and work closely with the adviser and/or graduate students/postdoctoral fellows.

The department publishes a Shopping Guide, which lists some research topics that the geosciences faculty members currently are pursuing. The Shopping Guide is a good starting point to identify a list of topics and research advisers from which students can select a topic and adviser for their senior independent research in consultation with the departmental adviser and faculty members. Students interested in pursuing a topic that is not part of the Shopping Guide are encouraged to approach their departmental adviser to discuss the feasibility of conducting the research either under the supervision of a faculty member in the department or in another department in the University. Many students select their projects early, in consultation with the faculty adviser, and begin the research during the summer preceding senior year. The department and the faculty adviser usually provide the necessary funds to conduct the independent research.

The department requires that a student submit a thesis proposal (due in late September or early October) and several interim research progress reports, including the fall semester progress report, a rough draft of the thesis for feedback, and the final thesis. The goal of the interim reports is to facilitate timely adviser-student feedback, help minimize the unavoidable thesis rush at the end of the year, and ensure that the final product of the thesis is of the highest quality. In addition to writing their theses, all students give oral presentations to the faculty and students of the geosciences department. The grade for the thesis is based on the quality of the research, the written report, and the oral presentation.

Senior Departmental Examination

The comprehensive examination in the department consists of an oral examination based on the senior thesis and related topics.

Grading and Honors

Senior Thesis: You will be graded on (1) your thesis research plus written report and (2) oral presentation plus answers to questions.

Thesis Grade:

  1. Written thesis: Quality and clarity of writing, proper organization and citations, illustration of results, interpretation, and discussion, originality, and commitment to doing the best possible lab-, field-, or model-based research. Grade determined by adviser and second reader.
  2. Oral presentation: Based on quality and clarity of presentation in lecture and illustrations as well as facility in answering questions pertaining to research results. Grade determined by the entire faculty.

The final thesis grade will be set only after a meeting of the faculty to discuss and rank all theses. In general, an A on a senior thesis means that the work and write-up submitted have sufficient merit to be published in a peer-reviewed journal. The final thesis grade is reported to the registrar and appears on the student's transcript.

Academic Honors

The department awards academic honors (Honors, High Honors, Highest Honors) based on a combination of factors, including the overall grade point average (GPA), departmental GPA, the relevance and degree of difficulty of course load, junior research papers, and senior thesis. If the student has taken more than the required courses, then the courses with the highest grades that satisfy the concentration and breadth requirements are used in the calculation. For the senior thesis and junior research papers, the assigned grades will be used. In addition to grades, dedication to research, academic participation, and the overall impressions the student has made on the faculty are taken into consideration in the honors calculation. To ensure that the quality of honors remains consistent from year to year, the faculty compares student achievements with those from previous years.

Preparation for Graduate Study

Specialization in any one of the Earth sciences today requires graduate study. Students interested in pursuing graduate studies in any of the specializations are encouraged to take advanced chemistry, physics, mathematics, biology, and computer science courses. More specific information on graduate education can be obtained from the director of undergraduate studies or other faculty members.

Additional Information

Field Programs

Since experience in field geology can be an important aspect of professional training, students are encouraged to take a course in field methods in geology and oceanography.

Geological Field Camp

After their first year, sophomore, or junior year, many of our students enroll in a geosciences summer field camp (students should consult their faculty adviser in the November before they plan to attend summer field camp). Other students choose to work with a faculty member or a graduate student in the field, and may conduct independent research for junior or senior independent research as part of this opportunity. Geosciences facilitates student enrollment in these field opportunities by providing financial aid.

Experience at Sea

Students interested in ocean studies can participate in ongoing studies at sea or at the Bermuda Biological Station. The department tries to make available opportunities to interested undergraduates to participate in an oceanographic cruise at some time during their undergraduate years.

Information on other opportunities for field experience is made available annually. The student should consult the DUS if interested in participating in field programs.

Financial Assistance

Grants for fieldwork in geology are available through the Tony Conway '36 Memorial Scholarship Fund. Grants for field and museum studies and research in natural history during the summer are available to students of high scholastic standing from the John Boyd '43 Memorial Fund and the Glenn L. Jepsen '27 Fund. Grants are available from the Erling Dorf '33 Fund for fieldwork and the field course. The Howard T. Vaum Jr. '78 Fund supports studies in geological engineering in a field study program. Grants for environmental studies are available from the High Meadows Environmental Institute. Students seeking assistance from any of these funds should present a proposal (two pages of research description) by February 15 to the DUS.

Funds are available from time to time for qualified undergraduates to serve as research assistants to faculty members during the regular academic session as well as during the summer months.

In some instances, summer employment for qualified students can be arranged with governmental, commercial, or academic field parties.






GEO 102A Climate: Past, Present, and Future (also
ENV 102A
STC 102A
) Fall SEN

Which human activities are changing our climate, and does climate change constitute a major problem? We will investigate these questions through an introduction to climate processes and an exploration of climate from the distant past to today. We will also consider the impact of former and ongoing climate changes on the global environment and on humanity. Finally, we will draw on climate science to identify and evaluate possible courses of action. Intended to be accessible to students not concentrating in science or engineering. Two 80-minute lectures per week. Instructed by: D. Sigman

GEO 102B Climate: Past, Present, and Future (also
ENV 102B
STC 102B
) Fall SEL

Which human activities are changing our climate, and does climate change constitute a major problem? We will investigate these questions through an introduction to climate processes and an exploration of climate from the distant past to today. We will also consider the impact of former and ongoing climate changes on the global environment and on humanity. Finally, we will draw on climate science to identify and evaluate possible courses of action. Intended to be accessible to students not concentrating in science or engineering. Two 80-minute lectures per week and one three-hour laboratory per week. Instructed by: D. Sigman

GEO 103 Natural Disasters Spring SEL

An introduction to natural (and some society-induced) hazards and the importance of public understanding of the issues related to them. Emphasis is on the geological processes that underlie the hazards, with some discussion of relevant policy issues. Principal topics: Earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, tsunami, hurricanes, floods, meteorite impacts, global warming. Intended primarily for non-science majors. Three lectures, one three-hour laboratory. Instructed by: A. Rubin

GEO 202 Ocean, Atmosphere, and Climate Spring SEN

The ocean and the atmosphere control Earth's climate, and in turn climate and atmospheric changes influence the ocean. We explore what sets the temperature of Earth's atmosphere and the connections between oceanic and atmospheric circulations including exchanges of heat and carbon. We then investigate how these circulations control marine ecosystems and the cycling of chemicals in the ocean. The final part of the course focuses on human impacts, including changes in coastal environments and the acidification resulting from increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. One three-hour laboratory complements lectures. Instructed by: L. Resplandy

GEO 203 Fundamentals of Solid Earth Science (also
ENE 203
) Fall QCR

A quantitative introduction to Solid Earth system science, focusing on the underlying physical and chemical processes and their geological and geophysical expression. Through the course we investigate the Earth starting from its basic constituents and continue through its accretion, differentiation and evolution and discuss how these processes create and sustain habitable conditions on Earth's surface. Topics include nucleosynthesis, planetary thermodynamics, plate tectonics, seismology, geomagnetism, petrology, sedimentology and the global carbon cycle. Two field trips included. Instructed by: Staff

GEO 207 A Guided Tour of the Solar System (also
AST 207
) Not offered this year QCR

Examines the major bodies of our solar system, emphasizing their surface features, internal structures, and atmospheres. Topics include the origin of the solar system, habitability of planets, and the role of impacts in planetary evolution. Terrestrial and giant planets will be studied as well as satellites, comets, and asteroids. Recent discoveries from planetary missions are emphasized. This course is aimed primarily at non-science majors. Three lectures, this course is normally taught in the fall. Instructed by: T. Duffy

GEO 255 Life in the Universe (See AST 255)

GEO 300 Summer Course in Geologic Field Methods Spring SEL

Introduction to modern geologic field methods, with local and regional problems studied from a residential base camp. One option is the five week University of Houston-Yellowstone Bighorn Research Association (YBRA) course based in Red Lodge, Montana, run by the University of Houston. Alternatively, students may attend field courses offered by other institutions after obtaining approval from the Undergraduate Work Committee of the Department of Geosciences. Financial aid is available through the Geosciences Department. Instructed by: A. Maloof, L. Goodell

GEO 311 Global Air Pollution (See CEE 311)

GEO 361 Earth's Atmosphere (also
ENV 361
CEE 360
) Fall SEN

This class discusses fundamental aspects of Earth's climate with a focus on the fundamental atmospheric processes that render Earth "habitable," and how they may respond to the forcing originating from natural (such as volcanoes) and anthropogenic (such as emission of carbon dioxide and ozone-depleting gases) processes. Instructed by: S. Fueglistaler

GEO 362 Earth History (also
ENV 362
) Spring SEN

The chemical cycles of ocean and atmosphere and their interaction with Earth's biota. Topics include: the origin of the ocean's salt; the major and biologically active gases in the atmosphere and ocean; nutrients and ocean fertility; the global carbon cycle; the reactive chemistry of the atmosphere. Prerequisites: CHM 201/202 or higher; GEO 202 and/or GEO 361; or permission of the instructor. Three lectures. Instructed by: J. Higgins

GEO 363 Environmental Chemistry: Chemistry of the Natural Systems (also
CHM 331
ENV 331
) Fall SEN

Covers topics including origin of elements; formation of the Earth; evolution of the atmosphere and oceans; atomic theory and chemical bonding; crystal chemistry and ionic substitution in crystals; reaction equilibria and kinetics in aqueous and biological systems; chemistry of high-temperature melts and crystallization process; and chemistry of the atmosphere, soil, marine, and riverine environments. The biogeochemistry of contaminants and their influence on the environment will also be discussed. Two 90-minute lectures. Prerequisite: one term of college chemistry or instructor's permission. Instructed by: S. Myneni

GEO 365 Evolution and Catastrophes Not offered this year SEN

This course introduces students to the evolution of life and mass extinctions based on a broad survey of major events in Earth history as revealed by the fossil record. Concepts and techniques of paleontology are applied to all aspects, including colonization of the oceans, invasion of land, mass extinctions and evolutionary radiations. The roles of major catastrophes in the history of life are evaluated, including meteorite impacts, volcanism, climate change, and oceanic anoxia. One three-hour lecture. Prerequisite: One 200 level or higher GEO course. Instructed by: Staff

GEO 366 Climate Change: Impacts, Adaptation, Policy (also
ENV 339
SPI 451
ENE 366
) Spring SEN

An exploration of the potential consequences of human-induced climate change and their implications for policy responses, focusing on risks to people, societies, and ecosystems. As one example: we examine the risk to coastal cities from sea level rise, and measures being planned and implemented to enable adaptation. In addition, we explore local, national, and international policy initiatives to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions. The course assumes students have a basic background in the causes of human-induced climate change and the physical science of the climate system. Two 90-minute lectures, one preceptorial Instructed by: M. Oppenheimer

GEO 370 Sedimentology (also
ENV 370
CEE 370
) Spring SEN

A treatment of the physical and chemical processes that shape Earth's surface, such as solar radiation, i.e., deformation of the solid Earth, and the flow of water (vapor, liquid, and solid) under the influence of gravity. In particular, the generation, transport, and preservation of sediment in response to these processes are studied in order to better read stories of Earth history in the geologic record and to better understand processes involved in modern and ancient environmental change. Prerequisites: MAT 104, PHY 103, CHM 201, or equivalents.Two lectures, required spring break field trip, students do lab work as groups on their own time Instructed by: A. Maloof

GEO 371 Global Geophysics (also
PHY 371
) Fall SEN

An introduction to the fundamental principles of global geophysics. Taught on the chalkboard, in four parts, the material builds up to form a final coherent picture of (how we know) the structure and evolution of the solid Earth: gravity, magnetism, seismology, and geodynamics. The emphasis is on physical principles including the mathematical derivation and solution of the governing equations. Prerequisites: MAT 201 or 203, PHY 103/104 or PHY 105/106. Two 90-minute lectures. Instructed by: F. Simons

GEO 372 Rocks Spring SEL

This course serves as an introduction to the processes that govern the distribution of different rocks and minerals in the Earth. Students learn to make observations from the microscopic to continental scale and relate these to theoretical and empirical thermodynamics. The goal is to understand the chemical, structural, and thermal influences on rock and mineral formation and how this in turn influences the plate tectonic evolution of our planet. This course has two lectures, one lab and a required Spring Break fieldtrip. Prerequisite: One introductory GEO course and GEO 378. Instructed by: B. Schoene

GEO 373 Structural Geology Fall SEL

The nature and origin of the deformed rocks composing the crust of Earth considered at scales ranging from atomic to continental. Tectonics and regional geology of North America. Two lectures, one lab and a required Fall Break fieldtrip. Instructed by: B. Schoene

GEO 374 Planetary Systems: Their Diversity and Evolution (also
AST 374
) Not offered this year SEN

Examines the diversity of recently discovered planetary systems in terms of fundamental physical and chemical processes and what this diversity implies about the origin and evolution of our own planetary system. Topics include: the formation and dynamics of planets and satellites, planetary migration, the evolution of planetary interiors, surfaces and atmospheres, the occurrence of water and organics, and the habitability of planets and planetary systems. Recent discoveries from planetary missions and extrasolar planet observations are emphasized. Prerequisites: GEO 207, 255, or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute lectures. Instructed by: Staff

GEO 375 Environmental Fluid Mechanics (See CEE 305)

GEO 378 Mineralogy (also
MSE 348
) Spring SEL

A survey of the structure and crystal chemistry of major rock-forming minerals. Topics include: symmetry, crystallography, physical and chemical properties of minerals, mineral thermodynamics, systematic mineralogy, and techniques of modern mineralogy. Instructed by: T. Duffy

GEO 417 Environmental Microbiology (also
CEE 417
EEB 419
) Spring

The study of microbial biogeochemistry and microbial ecology. Beginning with the physical/chemical characteristics and constraints of microbial metabolism, we will investigate the role of bacteria in elemental cycles, in soil, sediment, and marine and freshwater communities, in bioremediation and chemical transformations. Prerequisites: One 300-level course in chemistry or biology, or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute classes, this course is normally offered in the Spring. Instructed by: B. Ward

GEO 418 Environmental Aqueous Geochemistry (also
CHM 418
) Spring

Application of quantitative chemical principles to the study of natural waters. Includes equilibrium computations, weathering and diagenetic processes, precipitation of chemical sediments, and pollution of natural waters. Two lectures. Prerequisite: one year of college chemistry. Previous or concurrent enrollment in CHM 306 recommended. Instructed by: A. Kraepiel-Morel

GEO 419 Physics and Chemistry of Earth's Interior (also
PHY 419
) Spring

The Earth is a physical system whose past and present state can be studied within the framework of physics and chemistry. Topics include current concepts of geophysics and the physics and chemistry of Earth materials; origin and evolution of the Earth; and nature of dynamic processes in its interior. One emphasis is to relate geologic processes on a macroscopic scale to the fundamental materials properties of minerals and rocks. Three lectures. Prerequisites: one year of college-level chemistry or physics (preferably both) and calculus. Offered alternately with 424. Instructed by: T. Duffy

GEO 420 Topics in Earth Science

These courses cover one or more advanced topics in modern Earth science. They are offered only when there is an opportunity to present material not included in the established curriculum; the subjects vary from year to year. Three classes or a three-hour seminar. Instructed by: Staff

GEO 422 Data, Models, and Uncertainty in the Natural Sciences Fall QCR

This course is for students who want to turn observations into models and subsequently evaluate their uniqueness and uncertainty. Three main topics, taught on the chalkboard, are elementary statistics (inference), heuristic time series (Fourier) analysis, and model parameter estimation via matrix inverse methods. Prerequisites: MAT 201 and 202. Theory lectures and classroom Matlab instruction in alternating weeks. Two 90-minute lectures/classes. Instructed by: F. Simons

GEO 424 Introductory Seismology (also
CEE 424
ENE 425
) Spring SEN

Fundamentals of seismology and seismic wave propagation. Introduction to acoustic and elastic wave propagation concepts, observational methods, and inferences that can be drawn from seismic data about the deep planetary structure of the Earth, as well as about the occurrence of oil and gas deposits in the crust. Prerequisites: PHY 104 and MAE 305 (can be taken concurrently), or permission of the instructor. Two 90-minute classes. Instructed by: J. Tromp

GEO 425 Introduction to Ocean Physics for Climate (also
MAE 425
) Fall

The study of the role of and mechanisms behind oceanic transport, storage and exchange of energy, freshwater and momentum in the climate system. Exploration of ocean circulation, mixing, thermodynamic properties and variability. Understanding the physical constraints on the ocean, including Coriolis-dominated equations of motion, the wind-driven and thermohaline circulations, and the adjustment of the ocean to perturbations. El Niño, oceans and global warming & sea ice. Three 50-minute classes. G. Vecchi and S. Legg Instructed by: G. Vecchi

GEO 428 Biological Oceanography Spring

Fundamentals of biological oceanography, with an emphasis on the ecosystem level. The course will examine organisms in the context of their chemical and physical environment; properties of seawater and atmosphere that affect life in the ocean; primary production and marine food webs; and global cycles of carbon and other elements. Students will read the current and classic literature of oceanography. Prerequisites: college-level chemistry, biology, and physics. Two 90-minute classes. Instructed by: B. Ward

GEO 441 Computational Geophysics (also
APC 441
) Spring

An introduction to weak numerical methods used in computational geophysics. Finite- and spectral-elements, representation of fields, quadrature, assembly, local versus global meshes, domain decomposition, time marching and stability, parallel implementation and message-passing, and load-balancing. Parameter estimation and "imaging" using data assimilation techniques and related "adjoint" methods. Labs provide experience in meshing complicated surfaces and volumes as well as solving partial differential equations relevant to geophysics. Prerequisites: MAT 201; partial differential equations and basic programming skills. Two 90-minute lectures. Instructed by: J. Tromp

GEO 442 Geodynamics (also
PHY 442
) Fall

An advanced introduction to setting up and solving boundary value problems relevant to the solid Earth sciences. Topics include heat flow, fluid flow, elasticity and plate flexure, and rock rheology, with applications to mantle convection, magma transport, lithospheric deformation, structural geology, and fault mechanics. Prerequisites: MAT 201 or 202. Two 90-minute lectures. Instructed by: A. Rubin

GEO 464 Quantifying Geologic Time Spring

Theory and methodology of radiogenic isotope geochemistry with a focus on geochronology as applied to topics in the geosciences, including the formation and differentiation of the Earth and solar system, thermal and temporal evolution of orogenic belts, and the rates and timing of important geochemical, biotic, and climatic events in earth history. Two 90-minute lectures. Instructed by: B. Schoene

GEO 470 Environmental Chemistry of Soils (also
CHM 470
ENV 472
) Spring

Focuses on the inorganic and organic constituents of aqueous, solid, and gaseous phases of soils, and fundamental chemical principles and processes governing the reactions between different constituents. The role of soil chemical processes in the major and trace element cycles, and the biogeochemical transformation of different soil contaminants will be discussed in the later parts of the course. Prerequisites: GEO363/CHM331/ENV331, or any other basic chemistry course. Two 90-minute lectures. Instructed by: S. Myneni

GEO 471 Introduction to Water Pollution Technology (See CEE 471)