Department of Near Eastern Studies

  • Chair

    Muhammad Q. Zaman

  • Departmental Representative

    Eve Krakowski

  • Director of Graduate Studies

    Michael A. Cook

  • Professor

    Michael A. Cook

    M. Şükrü Hanioğlu

    Bernard A. Haykel

    Hossein Modarressi

    Marina Rustow, also History

    Muhammad Q. Zaman, also Religion

  • Associate Professor

    Michael A. Reynolds

    Max D. Weiss, also History

  • Assistant Professor

    Jonathan M. Gribetz, also Judaic Studies

    Lara Harb

    Eve Krakowski, also Judaic Studies

    Satyel K. Larson

    M'hamed Oualdi, also History

    Daniel J. Sheffield

  • Senior Lecturer

    Nancy Coffin

  • Lecturer

    Gregory J. Bell

    Tarek Elsayed

    Nilüfer Hatemi

    Thomas Hefter

    Nura Hossainzadeh

    Amineh Mahallati

    Philip Zhakevich

    Faris Zwirahn

     

  • Associated Faculty

    Molly Greene, History, Hellenic Studies

    Amaney A. Jamal, Politics

    Michael F. Laffan, History

    Lital Levy, Comparative Literature

    Shaun E. Marmon, Religion

 

The Department of Near Eastern Studies offers a liberal arts major designed to give students competence in a Near Eastern language and a broad knowledge of the literatures, civilizations, politics, and history of the ancient, medieval, and modern Near East (comprising Afghanistan, the Arab countries, Central Asia, Iran, Israel, Muslim Africa, South Asia, and Turkey). Accordingly, a plan of study is built around departmental and cognate courses in history, literature, religion, law, anthropology, politics, economics, and public policy, combined with the study of one or more Near Eastern languages (Arabic, Hebrew, Persian, or Turkish), determined by the student's interest. In addition to serving as the focal point of a broad liberal arts education, the Near Eastern studies major can be the basis for graduate or professional study. The department's many small classes and seminars allow extensive student/teacher interaction and equip students to take up careers in business, finance, economics, international affairs, government, diplomacy, journalism and public policy.

Information and Departmental Plan of Study

Departmental concentrators achieve a broad understanding of the varieties of regions, cultures, and religions of the Near East in the more distant past as well as in the modern period, and gain the tools of the multiple disciplines employed by scholars of Near Eastern Studies. The department’s curricular guidelines help ensure that students reach these objectives while also giving them significant flexibility to forge their own educational paths in the department.

Advanced Placement

Advanced placement is available in all of the languages offered by the department. Students seeking advanced placement in Arabic, Persian, or Turkish should consult the departmental representative to arrange for testing with the appropriate language instructor. A student with a Hebrew Subject Test score of 760 or a high score on the departmental Hebrew placement examination given during freshman orientation week will be considered to have satisfied the A.B. foreign language requirement and to be eligible for placement in a 300-level course.

Prerequisites

A student who has completed at least one course in the department is eligible to concentrate in Near Eastern studies. This course may be a language class or a course or seminar offered in any of the disciplines covered by the department.

Early Concentration

Students who meet the prerequisite for entrance into the department may be admitted and begin their program of concentration in the second term of sophomore year. 

Departmental requirements

Students take eight departmental courses in Near Eastern Studies. Up to three may be from cognate departments, upon the approval of the Department Representative. Language courses beyond the second year count as departmentals, as does elementary and intermediate study of a second Near Eastern language.  

All students are required to take NES 300 (Seminar in Research Methods).  Students who plan to be abroad when the course is offered are encouraged to take the course before they leave campus. Juniors who are abroad when the course is offered may take the course in the Senior year. 

The remaining seven courses must satisfy the following chronological, regional, and disciplinary distribution requirements:

1. Historical Periods: Students are required to take at least one course that focuses on the pre-modern Near East and at least one course that focuses on the modern Near East.

2. Regions: Students are required to take at least two regionally specific courses. Each of these two courses must focus on one of the following six sub-regions of the Near East. They may not focus on the same region.

     a. Egypt, North Africa, and Andalusia

     b. The Levant, Iraq, and the Arabian Peninsula

     c. Ottoman Empire/Turkey

     d. Iran

     e. Muslim South and Central Asia

     f. Diasporic communities

3. Disciplines: Students are required to take at least one course in two of the following four disciplines:

     a. history

     b. literature

     c. social sciences

     d. religion

A single course may satisfy multiple distribution requirements across these domains (Historical Periods, Regions, and Disciplines). For example, a course focusing on 20th century Turkish literature may count as modern (Historical Periods), Ottoman Empire/Turkey (Regions), and literature (Disciplines). 

A single course may not, however, satisfy more than one distribution requirement within a single domain; thus a course on Arabic literature that spans the pre-modern and modern periods would not satisfy both the pre-modern and modern Historical Periods requirements.

Students who wish to undertake a plan of study that does not meet these guidelines must apply for a waiver from the Undergraduate Committee.  Waivers will be granted only in exceptional cases.

Language Requirements

Students must complete four terms (i.e., through 107 level) of Arabic, Hebrew, Persian, or Turkish. Students are advised to begin their language training as early as possible. Students are encouraged, albeit not required, to continue language study at the advanced level and to utilize their chosen Near Eastern language for senior thesis research. The necessary language training for the A.B. degree can be acquired through a combination of language study at Princeton, intensive summer language study, and year abroad programs. The department will work out with each undergraduate concentrator a language training schedule appropriate to his or her planned course of study.

Independent Work

Junior year. Students write one junior paper over the course of the year in consultation with a member of the faculty. Students submit a proposal (including an outline and an annotated bibliography) for their Junior Independent Work in the fall semester and a completed Junior Paper in the spring semester. See here for NES Junior Independent Work Guidelines. Important deadlines for the Junior Paper are listed here.

Senior year. Each student prepares a senior thesis in consultation with a member of the faculty. See here for NES Senior Thesis Guidelines. Important deadlines for the senior thesis are listed here.

The choice of Junior Paper and Senior Thesis topics must be approved by the student's adviser.

Certificate in Language and Culture

The Department of Near Eastern Studies offers students the opportunity to earn a certificate in one of the area's languages and cultures while concentrating in another department.

Certificate Requirements. The certificate is open to undergraduates in all departments. Students should consult the departmental representative by the end of the sophomore year to plan a program of study. Ordinarily, students concentrating in language and literature departments, including comparative literature, will be eligible for the certificate in language and culture provided that: (a) the linguistic base for the language and culture certificate is different from the linguistic base of the concentration; and (b) the work required for the language and culture certificate does not duplicate the requirements of the major. Students pursuing area studies certificates may earn the certificate in language and culture provided that: (a) the courses they elect to satisfy the requirements of the area studies program are different from those they elect to satisfy the requirements of the language and culture certificate program; and (b) they submit a piece of independent work in addition to the independent work that satisfies the requirements of the area studies program and the home department. The requirements for work done in the Department of Near Eastern Studies are:

1. Studying one of the languages taught in the department--Arabic, Hebrew, Persian, Turkish--beyond the level required for completion of the University language requirement

2. Completing at least three departmental courses at the 300 level or higher in language, literature, or culture that involve extensive use of the designated language

3. Completing a piece of independent work that makes substantive use of a Near Eastern language. Most often this is a substantial research paper (approximately 7,000 words) written under the supervision of a member of the department.

In addition to 300- and 400-level language courses, any graduate courses open to qualified undergraduates, such as those listed below, may be used to satisfy the departmental requirements above:

In Arabic:
NES 529 (Readings in Modern Arabic Literature)
NES 531/532 (Readings in Classical Arabic Literature)

In Hebrew:
NES 508 (Readings in Medieval Hebrew Literature)
NES 509 (Readings in Modern Hebrew Literature)
NES 523 (Readings in Judeo-Arabic)

In Persian:
NES 539/540 (Studies in Persian Literature)

In Turkish:
NES 504 (Introduction to Ottoman Turkish)

Finally, a course in which the student arranges with the instructor to do substantial reading in his or her designated language may also count toward the certificate in language and culture. This includes all the literature in translation courses. This must be arranged on a case-by-case basis with the instructor involved.

Any questions regarding the certificate in language and culture should be addressed to the departmental representative in Jones Hall.

 

 

Courses

ARA 101 Elementary Arabic I Fall Students in this course will develop their skills in speaking, hearing, reading, and writing Modern Standard Arabic, the form of the Arabic language shared by all Arab countries. The course covers phonics, the alphabet and numerals, as well as noun-adjective agreement and how to form sentences using past and present tense verbs. Also covered: greetings and courtesy phrases in spoken Arabic. Five classes, one hour of drill. No credit is given for ARA 101 unless followed by ARA 102. Staff
ARA 102 Elementary Arabic II Spring Continuation of 101. Students will expand their language skills through conversational and grammatical exercises based on the audio-visual approach. Students will be able to speak and write simply and accurately about topics such as daily activities, studies, family members, and hopes and plans for the future. Five classes, one hour of drill. Staff
ARA 105 Intermediate Arabic I Fall Building upon the skills gained in 101 and 102, this course offers further practice in speaking and listening and increases proficiency in reading and writing. Topics to be covered include use of dual and feminine plural forms; conditional sentences; use of superlatives and comparatives; and the study of case markings in formal written Arabic. Five classes, one hour of drill. Staff
ARA 107 Intermediate Arabic II Spring Continuation of 105. Students will expand their reading, writing, speaking, and oral comprehension skills through oral and written exercises involving more sophisticated texts derived from authentic newspaper and journal sources. Five classes, one hour of drill. Staff
ARA 111 Colloquial Arabic I Not offered this year An introduction to a specific spoken dialect of the Arabic language. This course currently focuses on the Arabic dialects used in the Levant, especially Palestinian and Lebanese dialects. The material of the course is designed to promote functional usage of the language stressing vocabulary and grammar in conversation of everyday life. Four classes. N. Coffin
ARA 113 Colloquial Arabic II Not offered this year A continuation of ARA 111. Focusing on Arabic dialects used in the Levant, especially Palestinian and Lebanese dialects, the material of the course further develops functional usage of the language stressing vocabulary and grammar in conversation of everyday life. N. Coffin
ARA 301 Advanced Arabic I Fall Reading and accurate translation of numerous selections from modern Arabic works as well as reading for general understanding of simple prose, mostly from newspapers and magazines. Review of morphology, introduction to the systematic study of syntax. Speaking about the readings and about other assigned topics. English to Arabic translation. Emphasis on building vocabulary. Two 90-minute classes, two periods of drill. Staff
ARA 302 Advanced Arabic II Spring Continuation of 301. Class reading of more sophisticated discursive prose and short stories. Class discussion in Arabic of assigned texts not translated in class. Emphasis on the systematic study of syntax. Increased emphasis on speaking about a variety of topics. Arabic composition. Two 90-minute classes, two periods of drill. Staff
ARA 401 Advanced Arabic Skills Workshop Not offered this year LA This course develops to a more advanced and natural level the linguistic skills of listening, speaking, and reading through the reading and class discussion of lengthy texts, primarily literary ones. Term papers written in Arabic provide the opportunity to improve composition, and aural comprehension is honed through the use of tapes of Arabic broadcasts, and through viewing films from various parts of the Arab world. Prerequisite: 302 or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute classes. Staff
ARA 403 Topics in Arabic Language and Culture Fall This course is designed as an advanced, fourth-year course in Arabic language and culture which may be repeated up to two times, provided the topic is different each time. The course is intended to appeal to students who prefer to study in an Arabic immersion environment, and all aspects of the course will be conducted in Arabic. T. Elsayed
ARA 404 Topics in Arabic Language and Culture Spring LA Introduces the conventions of major genres of history, belles-lettres and religious thought of the Abbasid era (750-1258 CE). Primary emphasis on reading comprehension and developing confidence in approaching classical sources. Conducted in Arabic, apart from translation exercises, and will also develop skills in writing, through projects, and speaking, through discussions and presentations. Course is divided into one or two-week units, focusing on excerpts from major texts. Students to complete major reading/writing project on a text of choosing. T. Hefter
HEB 101 Elementary Hebrew I Fall Introductory course develops skills of reading, speaking, comprehension, and writing through various techniques, with an emphasis on a solid grammatical basis and awareness of idiomatic usage of the language. Teaching materials include ones developed in Israel. Five classes. No credit is given for HEB 101 unless followed by HEB 102. P. Zhakevich
HEB 102 Elementary Hebrew II Spring A continuation of 101, with emphasis on the development of all skills. The course will expose students to contemporary Israeli culture by using authentic material such as films, TV series, newspaper articles, and Web-based material. Class activities include role-playing, drills, group discussion, and oral presentations. Five classes. P. Zhakevich
HEB 105 Intermediate Hebrew I Fall Expansion of reading, oral, aural, and written skills, as well as coverage of more advanced grammar. Students will be gradually introduced to contemporary Israeli prose and poetry. Maximum participation by students is encouraged through discussion of readings and films. Five classes. P. Zhakevich
HEB 107 Intermediate Hebrew II Spring A continuation of 105, covering remainder of grammar. Further explores contemporary Israeli prose, poetry, and more complex essays from textbooks and photocopied material. Five classes. P. Zhakevich
HEB 301 Advanced Hebrew Language and Style I Not offered this year LA For advanced students, this course seeks to improve further the active command of written and spoken Hebrew through work with a variety of literary texts, styles, and artistic expressions, including film. Topics are selected to explore fundamental issues of Israeli culture and society. Prerequisite: 107 or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute classes. Staff
HEB 302 Advanced Hebrew Language and Style II Not offered this year LA Continuation of 301. Growing emphasis on individual and small group work. Students prepare final project of their choosing in consultation with instructor. Prerequisite: 301 or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute classes. P. Zhakevich
NES 201 Introduction to the Middle East (also
HIS 223
) Fall HA
An overview of the history of the Middle East from the rise of Islam to the present day with a focus on the "core" of the Middle East, i.e., the region defined by present-day Turkey and Egypt to the west, Iran to the east, and Arabia to the south. Issues raised include difficulties in the study of foreign cultures, religion and society, the interplay between local and global processes, identity formation, and the Middle East in the broader world. One lecture, two classes. M. Cook
NES 202 Contemporary Arabic Literature in Translation Not offered this year LA A survey of the literature of the modern Arab world, starting with the late 19th century and continuing up to within the last five years. Narrative (novel and short story), theater, poetry, as well as (briefly) folk literature will be treated. Works are assigned in English translation, but students who are able to read them in Arabic are welcome to do so. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Offered in alternate years. N. Coffin
NES 205 The Art and Archaeology of the Ancient Near East and Egypt (See ART 200)
NES 214 Masterworks of Hebrew Literature in Translation (also
JDS 214
) Not offered this year LA
An introduction to modern Hebrew literature, represented by selected translations from major works of the last hundred years, in prose (Agnon, Almog, Izhar, Kahana-Carmon, Mendele, Oz, and Yehoshua) and in poetry (Alterman, Amichai, Bialik, Rabikovitch, Zach, and others). Two 90-minute classes. Staff
NES 220 Jews, Muslims, and Christians in the Middle Ages (also
HIS 220
/
JDS 220
/
MED 220
) Not offered this year HA
An introduction to the history and culture of the Jews in the Middle Ages (under Islam and Christendom) covering, comparatively, such topics as the interrelationship between Judaism and the other two religions, interreligious polemics, political (legal) status, economic role, communal self-government, family life, and cultural developments. Two 90-minute classes. Staff
NES 230 Early Islamic Art and Architecture (See ART 230)
NES 232 The Arts of the Islamic World (See ART 232)
NES 235 In the Shadow of Swords: War, Martyrdom and the Afterlife in Islam (See REL 235)
NES 236 Introduction to Islam (See REL 236)
NES 240 Muslims and the Qur'an (also
REL 240
) Not offered this year EM
A broad-ranging introduction to pre-modern, modern, and contemporary Islam in light of how Muslims have approached their foundational religious text, the Qur'an. Topics include: Muhammad and the emergence of Islam; theology, law and ethics; war and peace; mysticism; women and gender; and modern debates on Islamic reform. This course examines the varied contexts in which Muslims have interpreted their sacred text, their agreements and disagreements on what it means, and more broadly, their often competing understandings of Islam and of what it is to be a Muslim. Three classes. M. Zaman
NES 265 Political and Economic Development of the Middle East (also
POL 465
) Fall SA
Provides a framework for understanding the political and economic issues that both challenge and encourage development in the Middle East and Northern Africa. Students will think creatively about the issues raised by designing a development project aimed at tackling a specific problem in a Middle Eastern country. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff
NES 268 Political Islam Not offered this year HA For decades scholars predicted that as nations modernized, religion and its corresponding institutions would become increasingly irrelevant. No phenomenon has discredited the secularization thesis more than the powerful resurgence of Islamist movements that began in the 1970s. Given the rapid social and economic development experienced by most Muslim countries, why has political Islam emerged as the most potent force of political opposition in all of these countries? To address this question, the course examines the origins and discourse of political Islam and the goals and organization of Islamist groups. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff
NES 269 The Politics of Modern Islam Fall HA An examination of the political dimensions of Islam, involving a study of the nature of Islamic political theory, the relationship between the religious and political establishments, the characteristics of an Islamic state, the radicalization of Sunni and Shi'i thought, and the compatibility of Islam and the nation-state, democracy, and constitutionalism, among other topics. Students will be introduced to the complex and polemical phenomenon of political Islam, using examples drawn mainly, though not exclusively, from cases and writings from the Middle East. Two lectures, one preceptorial. B. Haykel
NES 305 Modern Worlds of Islam (See HIS 336)
NES 315 War and Politics in the Modern Middle East Not offered this year SA Drawing on case studies of Middle Eastern wars, this course examines the changing nature of warfare from the second half of the 20th century through the present day. It begins with Clausewitz's theory of war and examples of conventional state warfare in the Middle East, then moves on to cases of insurgency and so-called fouth generation warfare and uses them to test Clausewitz's ideas and less state-centric alternatives. Two 90-minute classes. M. Reynolds
NES 322 Politics of the Middle East (See POL 364)
NES 334 Modern Islamic Political Thought (also
REL 334
) Not offered this year EM
An examination of major facets of Islamic political thought from the late 19th century to the present in a broadly comparative framework and against the backdrop of medieval Islamic thought. Topics include: the "fragmentation" of religious authority and its consequences for Muslim politics; conceptions of the shari'a and of the Islamic state; and Islamist discourses on gender, violence, and relations with non-Muslims. One three-hour seminar. M. Zaman
NES 336 Pilgrimage, Travel, and Sacred Space: Muslims, Christians, and Jews in the Land of Islam (See REL 336)
NES 337 The Making of the Modern Middle East (also
HIS 334
) Not offered this year HA
An introduction to the political, social and cultural history of the Arabic-speaking Middle East, in addition to Iran, Israel, and Turkey from the late 19th century until the turn of the 21st century. Topics covered include: the end of the Ottoman and Qatar Empires; the integration of the Middle East into the world economy; the establishment of the Middle East state system; the development of political institutions, ideologies and religious revivalist movements; nationalism; women's movements; gender; the spread of political Islam; as well as literature, film and other forms of media.Two lectures, one preceptorial. M. Weiss
NES 338 The Arab-Israeli Conflict (also
JDS 338
/
HIS 349
) HA
The history of the Arab-Israeli conflict up to 1967. Due to its contentious theme, it stresses historiographic problems and primary sources; also, it looks at Israeli and Palestinian societies as much as at the conflict between them. Questions include the ideological vs. practical roots of, and religious/secular elements in, Zionism and Palestinian nationalism; politico-economic links between the two societies; breaks in their social and/or ethnic composition; the effects of collective traumas and warfare on socio-political structures and gender; and the role of foreign powers and regional states. Two lectures, one preceptorial. J. Gribetz
NES 339 Introduction to Islamic Theology (also
REL 339
) Not offered this year HA
A general survey of the main principles of Islamic doctrine. Focuses on the Muslim theological discourse on the concepts of God and God's attributes, man and nature, the world to come, revelation and prophethood, diversity of religions, and the possibility and actuality of miracles. One three-hour seminar. H. Modarressi
NES 340 Islam in India and Pakistan (See REL 338)
NES 343 Southeast Asia's Global History (See HIS 342)
NES 345 Introduction to Islamic Law Spring SA A survey of the history of Islamic law, its developments, and the attempts of the Muslim jurists to come to terms with the challenges of modern time. The course will focus on the issues of constitutional, public, international, and personal laws that have the greatest relevance to the modern era. One three-hour seminar. H. Modarressi
NES 347 Islamic Family Law Fall SA Examines the outlines of Islamic family law in gender issues, sexual ethics, family structure, family planning, marriage and divorce, parenthood, and child guardianship and custody. Provides a general survey of the Islamic legal system: its history and developments, structure and spirit, and the attempts of the Muslim jurists to adapt law to changing times. One three-hour seminar. H. Modarressi
NES 348 Islamic Ritual Laws Not offered this year SA Examines the outlines of Islamic ritual law. Starting with a general survey of pre-modern Islamic legal discourse, the course focuses on such issues as Islamic festivals, religious birth and death rituals, the concepts of worship and sacrifice, and various Islamic acts of devotion in matters such as prayer, fasting, almsgiving, and annual pilgrimage to Mecca. One three-hour seminar. H. Modarressi
NES 350 The Islamic World from its Emergence to the Beginnings of Westernization (also
HIS 245
/
MED 245
) Not offered this year HA
Begins with the formation of the traditional Islamic world in the seventh century and ends with the first signs of its transformation under Western impact in the 18th century. The core of the course is the history of state formation in the Middle East, but other regions and themes make significant appearances. The course can stand on its own or serve as background to the study of the modern Islamic world. Two 90-minute classes. M. Cook
NES 356 God's Messengers: Prophecy and Revelation in the Islamic Tradition (See REL 335)
NES 358 Modern Turkey Not offered this year HA An examination of changes currently affecting the Republic of Turkey, including internal and external problems precipitated by factors such as rapid urbanization, growing ethnic conscience, and regional instability. Two 90-minute classes. Staff
NES 363 Islamic Social and Political Movements Not offered this year SA An introduction to the vast number of Islam-inspired sociopolitical movements. An attempt is made to present the contemporary movements in the light of the Islamic tradition of rebellion and revolution. Islamic movements will be surveyed against the historical and social context in which they occurred, with emphasis on the Arab World and Iran. Questions will be raised about the ways in which these movements have been approached and interpreted. Two 90-minute classes. Staff
NES 365 Modern Iran Not offered this year HA A general introduction to Iran in the period from the establishment of the Qajar dynasty in the late 18th century to the present day. Particular emphasis will be given to the social and cultural development of Iran under the stimulus of its contacts with the West. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Offered in alternate years. Staff
NES 380 Politics and Society in the Arabic Novel and Film (See COM 380)
NES 404 Special Topics in Regional Studies (See ANT 404)
NES 416 Nation, State, and Empire: The Ottoman, Romanov, and Hapsburg Experiences (also
HIS 434
) Not offered this year HA
An exercise in comparative history and the application of theoretical constructs to historical events. Examines a range of theories of nationalism, state, and empire; applies them to the historical records of three multi-ethnic dynastic empires--the Ottoman, Russian, and Austro-Hungarian; explores the ways in which theories can both elucidate and obscure historical processes. Questions of the nature of empire, the rise of nationalism, and the processes of imperial collapse, among others, will be explored. One three-hour seminar. M. Reynolds
NES 419 Topics in the History of Modern Syria (See HIS 419)
NES 428 Representation of Faith and Power: Islamic Architecture in Its Context (See ART 438)
NES 433 Imperialism and Reform in the Middle East and the Balkans (also
HIS 433
) Spring HA
The major Near Eastern abd Balkan diplomatic crises, the main developments in internal Near Eastern history, and the Eastern Question as perceived by the Great Powers. The focus will be on the possible connections between diplomatic crises and the process of modernization. One three-hour seminar. M. Hanioglu
NES 435 The Madrasa: Islam, Education, and Politics in the Modern World (also
REL 435
) Not offered this year EM
Since 9/11, madrasas have often been viewed as sites of indoctrination into Islamic radicalism. This seminar seeks to examine the broad range of institutions to which the term "madrasa" refers in modern Muslim societies, as well as other related institutions of Islamic education. Addresses the transformations they have undergone since the 19th century, and how these institutions shape and are shaped by Muslim politics in varied contexts. One three-hour seminar. M. Zaman
NES 437 The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1800 (also
HIS 337
/
HLS 337
) Not offered this year HA
An analysis of political, economic, and social institutions with emphasis on the problems of continuity and change, the factors allowing for and limiting Ottoman expansion, and Ottoman awareness of Europe. Two 90-minute classes. Staff
NES 438 The Late Ottoman Empire Spring HA An examination of the Westernization movement; administrative reforms; Young Ottoman, Young Turk, and ethnic-nationalist movements; great diplomatic crises of the 19th and 20th centuries; emergence of modern Turkish republic; and the consequences of the Ottoman collapse. Two 90-minute classes. Offered in alternate years. M. Hanioglu
PER 101 Elementary Persian I Fall Introduction to Persian language and culture. By the end of the semester, students will have an overview of Persian grammar and will able to read and converse in Persian at a basic level. Class activities include group discussions, skits, short stories, oral presentations, and comprehension and grammar drills. Class instruction is supplemented with other media such as movies and online Persian news media. Five classes. No credit is given for PER 101 unless followed by PER 102. A. Mahallati
PER 102 Elementary Persian II Spring Continuation of 101 with a greater emphasis on reading, writing, and comprehension. By the end of the semester, most instruction will be delivered in Persian, and students will be able to communicate comfortably using everyday language and read more elaborate prose. Class instruction is supplemented with other media such as movies and online Persian news media. Five classes. A. Mahallati
PER 105 Intermediate Persian I Fall An introduction to modern Persian prose and poetry. The course introduces advanced grammar while developing communication skills through the discussion of modern and classic novels, movies, and online Persian media (news, weblogs, etc). This class will be conducted mainly in Persian. Prerequisite: 102 or instructor's permission. Five classes. A. Mahallati
PER 107 Intermediate Persian II Spring Continuation of 105. Reading and discussion of selected works by major authors. This class will be conducted mainly in Persian. Five classes. A. Mahallati
PER 301 Introduction to Classical Persian Literature Spring LA An introduction to the language of classical Persian literature. Intensive reading and discussion of texts by major poets and writers from Rudaki to Hafez. Texts will vary from year to year. Prerequisite: 107 or instructor's permission. Three classes. Staff
PER 302 Advanced Persian Reading I Not offered this year Aimed at developing proficiency in reading and communication in Persian, using materials written for native speakers. Texts used include classical Persian novels, modern works, and Persian translations of classical Western works such as Le Petit Prince and Les Miserables. This class will be conducted entirely in Persian. Prerequisite: two years of Persian or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute classes. A. Mahallati
PER 303 Advanced Persian Reading II: Modern Persian Prose Not offered this year Continuation of 302. This course is designed to improve students' proficiency in the reading and comprehension of a variety of Persian texts. Prerequisite: two years of Persian or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute classes. A. Mahallati
TUR 101 Elementary Turkish I Fall A performance-oriented, multimedia introductory course in modern spoken and written Turkish. Based on authentic input, grammatical properties of the language are introduced. Language skills are developed through communicative activities in class and individualized work with interactive learning aids. Five classes; laboratory required. No credit is given for TUR 101 unless followed by TUR 102. N. Hatemi
TUR 102 Elementary Turkish II Spring A continuation of 101. Coverage of basic grammar. There will be a growing emphasis on Turkish culture, reading, and increasing vocabulary. Final exam includes an oral interview. Five classes; laboratory work required. Prerequisite: 101. Students who complete 102 normally place into 105. N. Hatemi
TUR 105 Intermediate Turkish I Fall Building on students' knowledge, this course aims to further all language skills through extensive exposure to current news, authentic multimedia sources, and close reading of graded authentic materials. Weekly modules to reinforce more complex language structures. Prerequisite: 102 or permission of the instructor. Five classes; laboratory work recommended as needed. N. Hatemi
TUR 107 Intermediate Turkish II Spring A continuation of 105. Emphasis on developing all language skills and cultural understanding. Review of grammar as needed. In addition to exposure to current events, students will be introduced to modern Turkish literature, with close reading of selected prose and poetry. Final exam includes an oral interview. Five classes; laboratory work recommended as needed. N. Hatemi