Program Offerings

Offering type

The undergraduate program at the School of Architecture (link is external) is known for its rigorous and interdisciplinary approach to pre-professional education. The four-year undergraduate program leads to an A.B. with a major in architecture and offers an introduction to the discipline of architecture within the framework of a liberal arts curriculum. In addition to studying design and the history and theory of architecture and urbanism, undergraduates engage a range of disciplines that contribute to an architect's knowledge and vision, including courses in architectural analysis, representation, computing, and building technologies. Such a broad academic program also prepares students for a graduate program in architecture and other related disciplines such as landscape architecture, urban planning, civil engineering, art history and the visual arts.

Goals for Student Learning

Architecture is an academic and professional discipline that is technical, aesthetic and social in scope.  The goal of the undergraduate major is to engage the study of architecture within a comprehensive liberal arts education, drawing from the broader academic and professional environments of Princeton University and the School of Architecture. The Bachelor of Arts degree in architecture is a nonprofessional degree, meaning it does not fulfill requirements for professional licensure. For accredited professional degree programs, please refer to the National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB). Although the design studios serve as a primary pedagogical framework to rehearse modes of architectural thought and research, numerous departmental lectures, seminars and workshops provide a learning environment that promotes individual creativity and criticality. 

  • To train students in architectural thinking and making — to gain disciplinary expertise to eventually respond to the most pressing design problems of our time.
  • To engage students in the design studio — a rehearsal for the design problems they may address in the future — requiring proposals that demonstrate an understanding of programmatic considerations, contextual/environmental connections, social/political implications, technological systems and historical/theoretical meaning.
  • To train students in the mediums of architectural thought and representation, ranging from freehand sketching to digital drafting, physical modeling, digital modeling and printing, online and print media and other media constituting the métier of the craft.
  • To introduce students to the imbricated relationships of architecture and related design fields such as urbanism, landscape architecture, and civil and environmental engineering.
  • To engage with issues of environmental justice and its relationship to the built environment — understanding and mitigating inequitable disparities of quality of life and space with systemic social, racial, political, technical and scientific issues.
  • To maximize students’ capacities and skills to work collaboratively, convey thoughts clearly both orally and in writing, conduct independent research, contribute to scholarly debates and become leaders in the field. 


Students who wish to major in architecture are required to complete two courses during their first year or sophomore year: ARC 203 Introduction to Architectural Thinking (offered in fall) and ARC 204 Introduction to Architectural Design (offered in spring). The courses do not need to be taken in sequence. The design seminar ARC 206 Geometry and Architectural Representation is highly recommended before junior year but not required. At least one course in architectural history, taken in either the School of Architecture or the Department of Art and Archaeology, is recommended but not required to be completed before junior year.

Program of Study

The architecture program provides a foundation in architecture, landscape architecture, urban planning, historic preservation and related fields of study. In particular, the program prepares students for further study at the graduate level in design and the history and theory of art or architecture.

In addition to the general prerequisites and the requirements for independent work, each student is required to complete 10 courses in three related areas: history and theory, technology, and design. The history and theory distribution requires six courses: three history and theory of architecture courses, two of which are ARC 308 and ARC 403; two courses in history and theory of urbanism and landscape; and two upper-level courses in art and archaeology. The technology distribution requires two courses, one of which is ARC 311: Building Science and Technology–Building Systems. The design seminar distribution requires one course, although we currently list only one undergraduate design seminar: ARC 206. 

Architecture majors take the following sequence of courses in their junior and senior years: junior studio, which consists of ARC 350 and ARC 351, and two required history and theory courses: ARC 308: History of Architectural Theory, taken in the fall of junior year; and ARC 403: Topics in the History and Theory of Architecture, in the fall semester of senior year. These courses introduce methodologies of historical analysis and research, the literature of the field and varieties of architectural writing. 

In the fall semester of their senior year, students are required to enroll in ARC 404: Advanced Design Studio. ARC 404 is centered around independent design projects that synthesize students’ training and interests and investigate new approaches to representation. 

Students should check with the academic programs office and director of undergraduate studies to determine which one-time-only courses are being offered during the academic year.

Independent Work

Independent work provides an essential part of an architecture major’s training in their junior and senior years.

Junior Year. The junior independent work requirement is satisfied by a paper (about 30 pages) selected by the student in consultation with a faculty adviser. The work is initiated in the fall (topic, outline, and bibliography) and completed in the spring. Students work throughout the year in consultation with their faculty adviser. A Ph.D. student mentor also provides writing support.

Senior Year. The senior thesis in architecture is a year-long project that begins with ARC 403 in the fall semester. Faculty thesis advisers are assigned at the end of the fall term of senior year, and students work closely with their adviser to formulate their topic, define research methods, organize thesis material and refine the presentation of the scholarship.

The senior thesis is intended to be a detailed project, presenting a well-argued piece of research on a precise architectural theme, and may include several forms of representation. For example, students commonly utilize architectural drawings, models, video, photographs and computer-generated drawings and models. The final presentation and oral defense of the senior thesis in the spring constitute a section of the departmental examination.

Senior Departmental Examination

All students in the architecture program take the departmental examination [DC1] in May of their senior year. The exam consists of a dialog with one’s adviser and second reader around the thesis itself and a brief (10–15 minutes) presentation summarizing the student’s principal questions, findings and contribution to existing research. Students typically show images and highlight what was most interesting and exciting about the project.

Preparation for Graduate Study

The major in architecture offers a rich and wide-ranging curriculum that blends foundational knowledge with experience in architectural writing and creative workflows and processes. The major provides training that prepares students for a variety of career choices. Architecture students typically pursue practice and/or teaching, both of which require further study at the graduate level.  

Students who contemplate pursuing graduate professional study in architecture are strongly advised to elect MAT 103 and PHY 101. Courses in the social sciences and art and architectural history are also encouraged.

Professional Study in Architecture. Princeton undergraduates completing the program, if admitted to Princeton's graduate professional program (M.Arch. degree), generally complete their graduate studies in three years. Advanced standing may be granted by professional graduate schools at other universities.

In order to qualify for licensing as architects in the United States, students are required, by individual states, to complete a program leading to a professional degree that is accepted by the National Architectural Accrediting Board. Please see the NAAB statement at the end of this section.

Additional Information

Related Programs

The School of Architecture supports two undergraduate certificate programs:

Architecture and Engineering. Students interested in pursuing studies in both architecture and civil engineering may participate in the interdisciplinary certificate program in architecture and engineering. For further information, consult the appropriate entry for the Program in Architecture and Engineering.

Program in Urban Studies. The Program in Urban Studies is an interdepartmental plan of study for undergraduates that offers an interdisciplinary framework for the study of cities, metropolitan regions, and urban and suburban landscapes. With courses in diverse departments including art and archaeology, history, music, civil and environmental engineering, sociology and politics, along with the School of Architecture and the Princeton School of Public and International Affairs, the program encourages students to think about metropolitan centers in all their complexity as physical spaces; social, cultural, political and economic nexuses; and historical artifacts. For more information, please see the program's website.


Located at the center of campus, the Architecture Building is home to undergraduate and graduate design studios, Betts Auditorium, an exhibition gallery, the School of Architecture Library, the Archives and Audio-Visual Resources Collection, the Computer-Aided Design and Imaging Facility, and facilities for work related to building and construction technologies.

Architecture students have two model-building facilities available to them. The first is the School of Architecture Laboratory (aka SoA Lab), which houses some of the latest computer-driven fabrication technologies, including two Universal Laser Systems X Class CO2 Lasers; a Precix 4' X 8' Computerized Router Table; and the 3-D Systems Z-650 3-D Printer. All can be utilized after the completion of orientation and training sessions, and there are shop staff or trained student shop monitors on duty when opened. The second facility is the new Embodied Computation Laboratory (aka Arch Lab or ECL). This facility is a working research laboratory focusing on parametric design, robotics and fabrication that allows for heavier fabrication work, hands-on material experiments and full-scale mock-ups and prototypes.

Located on the second floor, the School of Architecture Library is part of the larger Princeton University Library system. Its holdings focus on architectural-related topics dating from the mid-19th century through the present, such as design, professional practice, architectural theory, landscape architecture, urban design, city planning, housing, architectural history and interior design. Although the site is modest in size, with about 28,500 volumes on-site, there are thousands more volumes housed in the Research Collections and Preservation Consortium (ReCAP) facility. Importantly, the library also subscribes to more than 325 architectural-related journals and other serials. The University’s collections related to architecture also extend across campus, with important resources in the Marquand Library of Art and Archaeology, the Engineering Library, and Firestone Library.



National Architectural Accrediting Board Statement. In the United States, most state registration boards require a degree from an accredited professional degree program as a prerequisite for licensure. The National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB), which is the sole agency authorized to accredit U.S. professional degree programs in architecture offered by institutions with U.S. regional accreditation, recognizes three types of degrees: the Bachelor of Architecture, the Master of Architecture, and the Doctor of Architecture. A program may be granted an eight-year, three-year, or two-year term of accreditation, depending on the extent of its conformance with established educational standards.

Doctor of Architecture and Master of Architecture degree programs may require a pre-professional undergraduate degree in architecture for admission. However, the pre-professional degree is not, by itself, recognized as an accredited degree.

Princeton University School of Architecture offers the following NAAB-accredited degree programs:

Master of Architecture (non-pre-professional degree + 108 graduate credit hours)
Master of Architecture (pre-professional degree + 72 graduate credit hours)

Next anticipated accreditation visit: 2024.


  • Dean

    • Mónica Ponce de León
  • Associate Dean

    • Michael Meredith
  • Chair

    • Mónica Ponce de León
  • Director of Undergraduate Studies

    • Mónica Ponce de León (acting)
  • Director of Graduate Studies

    • Marshall B. Brown (fall)
    • Beatriz Colomina
    • Spyros Papapetros (acting) (spring)
  • Professor

    • Stanley T. Allen
    • M. Christine Boyer
    • Marshall B. Brown
    • Beatriz Colomina
    • Elizabeth Diller
    • Mario I. Gandelsonas
    • Sylvia Lavin
    • Paul Lewis
    • Michael Meredith
    • Guy J.P. Nordenson
    • Jesse A. Reiser
  • Associate Professor

    • Forrest M. Meggers
    • Spyros Papapetros
  • Assistant Professor

    • Arash Adel
    • Erin D. Besler
    • Jay Cephas
    • S.E. Eisterer
    • V. Mitch McEwen
    • Cameron Wu
  • Lecturer

    • Aaron P. Shkuda
  • Visiting Professor

    • Ana Miljacki
    • Felicity Scott
  • Visiting Associate Professor

    • Lydia Kallipoliti
  • Visiting Lecturer

    • Sylvester Black
    • Cynthia Davidson
    • Darell W. Fields
    • Anda French
    • J. Robert Hillier
    • Tessa Kelly
    • Nancy Nichols
    • Mahadev Raman
    • Daniel Sherer

For a full list of faculty members and fellows please visit the department or program website.


ARC 102 - An Introduction to the History of Architecture (also ART 102) Spring LA

ARC 201 - Drawing I (also VIS 201) Fall LA

ARC 202 - Drawing I (also VIS 202) Spring LA

ARC 203 - Introduction to Architectural Thinking Fall LA

A broad overview of the discipline of architecture: its history, theories, methodologies, and its manners of thinking and working. Rather than a chronological survey, the course will be organized thematically, with examples drawn from a range of historical periods as well as contemporary practice. Through lectures, readings, precepts, and studio sessions, students will acquire a working knowledge of key texts, buildings, and architectural concepts. Two lectures, one preceptorial. S. Allen

ARC 204 - Introduction to Architectural Design Spring LA

The first in a series of design studios offered to students interested in majoring in architecture. The course will introduce architecture as an "impure'' plastic art, inseparable from a network of forces acting upon it. The student will be confronted with progressively complex exercises involving spatial relations in two dimensions, three dimensions, and time. The course will stress experimentation while providing an analytical and creative framework to develop an understanding of structure and materials as well as necessary skills in drawing and model making. Two three-hour studios with lectures included. P. Lewis

ARC 207 - Introduction to Urban Studies (also SOC 203/SPI 201/URB 201) Spring SA

ARC 208 - Designing Sustainable Systems (also EGR 208/ENE 202/ENV 206) Fall SEL

ARC 209 - Roman Architecture (also ART 201) Not offered this year LA

ARC 233 - Renaissance Art and Architecture (also ART 233) LA

ARC 242 - The Experience of Modernity: A Survey of Modern Architecture in the West (also ART 242/CEE 242) Not offered this year LA

ARC 262A - Structures and the Urban Environment (also CEE 262A/EGR 262A/URB 262A) Not offered this year LA

ARC 262B - Structures and the Urban Environment (also CEE 262B/EGR 262B/URB 262B) Spring SEL

ARC 302 - Architecture and the Visual Arts (also ART 347) Spring LA

Explores the relationships between architectural discourse and the visual arts from the historical avant-garde to the present. Architectural discourse will be considered here as the intersection of diverse systems of representation: buildings, projects, drawings, but also architectural theory and criticism, exhibitions, photographs, professional magazines, and the popular press. The course will treat as visual arts not only painting and sculpture, but also photography, cinema, fashion, advertisement, and television. Two lectures, one preceptorial. S. Papapetros

ARC 304 - Cities of the 21st Century Not offered this year HA

Examination of a range of urban spatial types, city plans, maps, and communication networks. Focus on how inherited models have been used by modern architects/planners in the 20th century. One 90-minute lecture, one 90-minute preceptorial. M. Boyer

ARC 305 - Urban Studies: Analysis of Contemporary Urban Form Not offered this year LA

Studies of the contemporary problems and process of urban design and physical planning. Analysis of the design and organization of space, activities, movement, and interaction networks of the urban physical environment. One three-hour seminar. Staff

ARC 308 - History of Architectural Theory (also ART 328) Fall HA

Architectural theory, criticism, and historiography from the Renaissance to the present, emphasizing the transformations of the classical Vitruvian tradition and theories of modern architecture from the end of the 17th century to the 1930s. Architectural thought in its institutional and cultural context and as it relates to design method and practice. Two lectures, one preceptorial. J. Cephas

ARC 310 - Traditional Chinese Architecture (also ART 351/EAS 357) Not offered this year LA

ARC 311 - Building Science and Technology: Building Systems (also STC 311) Fall

An introduction to the nature of building. Emphasis will be placed on understanding construction methods, materials, and evaluating the processes by which architects formulate strategies to execute their design ideas. A continuing theme will be to evaluate the relationship between architectural design and building systems and technology. Two lectures, one two-hour laboratory. V. McEwen

ARC 315 - Medieval Architecture (also ART 315) Not offered this year LA

ARC 320 - Rome, the Eternal City (also ART 320) Not offered this year LA

ARC 322 - History of Comparative Architecture Spring HALA

Focusing on the mutual reception of Italian and American architecture 1920-2018, we take into account divergences of urban form and architectural tradition that separate the two cultures alongside convergences of theory and practice. Starting with the impact of Wright on Mollino and Moretti, we move to the critical fortune of Organic Architecture in the postwar work of Scarpa and to the diverse roles of Ponti and BBPR in the USA, culminating with the dialogue between the New York Five and Italy in the 1970s. The course ends with an overview of contemporary dialogues between Italian and American architects, theoreticians and critics. D. Sherer

ARC 324 - The Birth of a Profession: Architects, Architecture and Engineers in 18th-Century Europe (also ART 324) HA

ARC 327 - Painting I (also VIS 203) Fall LA

ARC 328 - Painting I (also VIS 204) Spring LA

ARC 332 - The Landscape of Allusion: Garden and Landscape Architecture, 1450-1750 (also ART 332) Not offered this year LA

ARC 333 - Renaissance and Baroque Architecture (also ART 333) Not offered this year LA

ARC 364 - Materials in Civil Engineering (also CEE 364/MSE 365) Spring SEL

ARC 374 - Computational Thinking for Design, Architecture, and Engineering (also CEE 373) Spring LAQR

This course will examine the possibilities of representation and information in the virtual realm. Through a series of modeling/rendering/compositing exercises, presentations, and in-class discussions, students will investigate the evolving relationship between architecture and its means of representation, as well as broader issues of technology and culture. The course will provide a firm understanding of current computer software. One three-hour seminar. Staff

ARC 401 - Theories of Housing and Urbanism (also URB 401) Fall SA

Housing ideas and urban projects of architects and social scientists since the mid-19th century as a response to industrialization, the development of the welfare state, the rise of professionalism, and the dispersion of democratic culture. Material drawn from architecture, urban planning, political theory, sociology, and social psychology. One three-hour seminar. A. Laing

ARC 403 - Topics in the History and Theory of Architecture Fall LA

Selected issues in relationship to the development of architectural history and theory as critical disciplines, emphasizing the historiography and methodology of these disciplines. Course focuses on particular critics through a close reading and analysis of selected texts. One three-hour seminar. J. Cephas

ARC 404 - Advanced Design Studio Fall

Examines architecture as cultural production, taking into account its capacity to structure both physical environments and social organizations. A specific problem or topic area will be set by each studio critic, and may include a broad range of building types, urban districts or regional landscapes, questions of sustainability, building materials, or building performance. Studio work will include research and data gathering, analysis, and program definition. Students are expected to master a full range of design media, including drawing, model-making, and computer-aided design. C. Wu

ARC 405 - Architecture and Democracy (also CHV 403/ECS 402/POL 403) Spring EM

ARC 406 - Energy and Form (also ENV 406) Not offered this year

Introduction to concepts of energy utilization and conservation in building. Course presents the physics of building thermal performance, including quantitative methods, and discusses conservation strategies in building design and source energy. Passive design and alternative energy sources, including wind and solar-thermal, will be covered. One three-hour seminar. Staff

ARC 418 - Virtual and Augmented Reality for Engineers, Scientists, and Architects (also ENE 428/MAE 418) Not offered this year

ARC 445 - Topics in the History and Theory of Architecture in Early-Modern Europe (also ART 445) Not offered this year LA

ARC 458 - Seminar. Modern Architecture (also ART 458/ECS 458/FRE 458) Not offered this year LA

ARC 492 - Topics in the Formal Analysis of the Urban Structure (also ENV 492/URB 492) Spring

The Western city, American and European, has undergone a number of mutations since the Renaissance. This course will explore the complex relationships between different cities and architecture, between "real" cities and "fictional" architectural cities. Possible topics might include: urbanization as it affects contemporary life; the American vs. European city; the state of New Jersey, the exurban state "par excellence." One three-hour seminar. M. Gandelsonas