Art and Archaeology

Program Offerings

Offering type
A.B.

The Department of Art and Archaeology is devoted to the study of the visual arts and the investigation of material artifacts from a wide range of cultures and periods. Students may pursue a major in the History of Art or the Practice of Art; information on the certificate in Archaeology is also included below. Studio art courses are taught by faculty in the Program in Visual Arts; history of art courses also frequently include practical components. Students interested in the practice of art (taught by faculty in the Program in Visual Arts) can pursue a major in the department. Working closely with faculty members in small classes and often dealing directly with original objects and primary sources, students can explore subjects as diverse as Roman or modern city planning, arts of printing and book-making in East Asia or Europe, ancient or medieval archaeology, architectural history, 19th–21st century photography and contemporary arts of Africa, Latin America and the United States.

Students in the Department of Art and Archaeology learn techniques for analyzing and interpreting the visual and material world. They also investigate the factors that influence artistic change (e.g., religious beliefs, economic constraints, patronage demands and technological changes). Like any humanist or social scientist, they must evaluate evidence, form hypotheses, test data and draw conclusions. Successful majors learn to translate their visual perceptions into linguistic expression, develop visual memory and make connections among a wide array of historical evidence. Students must have at least a C- average based on courses and independent work in order to graduate from the department.

Students interested in majoring in the Department of Art and Archaeology must choose one of two tracks, each of which has its own admission prerequisites and curricular requirements.

Goals for Student Learning

  • Students cultivate their abilities to investigate and describe the essential role of art making in a range of histories and cultures. By extension, students develop their abilities to analyze critically and perceptively the products of human civilization and thought.
  • Students learn techniques by which to analyze visual-material cultures and locate artworks in time and space. They investigate factors that influence the form and direction of artistic practice or change (e.g., economic and social conditions, religious beliefs, patronage demands, technological development).
  •  Students evaluate evidence of various kinds (e.g., material, pictorial, documentary, textual), form hypotheses, test data and draw conclusions. Students engage in experiential learning, and regularly work directly from original sources.
  • Students learn to effectively translate sensory perceptions into linguistic or material expression, develop visual and/or auditory memory and make connections among a wide array of historical evidence. Practice of Art students additionally develop technical skills in multiple media.
  • All majors and certificate students reflect thoughtfully and explicitly on method in their respective junior seminars or the Introduction to Archaeology.
  • Students experience a range of artistic, art historical and archaeological methods and approaches, and have the opportunity to learn from colleagues practicing in diverse sectors of the field. They understand the interdisciplinary methods and commitments of the field, and work directly with primary sources of various kinds (as above, e.g., material culture, photographic or graphic documentation, textual sources).

In support of these goals:

  • Students have robust access through the department to the activities and communities of the Program in Archaeology and the Lewis Center for the Arts (certificate-granting programs).
  • Students have robust access through the department to the collections, activities and communities of the Princeton University Art Museum.
  • Students have robust access through the department to the collections, activities and communities of various units within the department (e.g., Visual Resources, Marquand Library, the Tang Center for East Asian Art, the Index of Medieval Art) and elsewhere on campus (e.g., Firestone Library, Special Collections).

Advanced Placement

No advanced placement credit is granted for the Art History Advanced Placement Examination.

Prerequisites

History of Art Track

Any two courses offered by the Department of Art and Archaeology.

Practice of Art Track

Two courses in the Program in Visual Arts and one course in the Department of Art and Archaeology. By the first Wednesday following spring break, sophomores submit an application and a portfolio of creative work to the Lewis Center for the Arts administrative office. By early April, the admissions committee for the Program in Visual Arts will notify students accepted into the program. No AP credit is accepted toward the Practice of Art major.

Program of Study

History of Art Track

A total of 10 courses in the Department of Art and Archaeology, including ART 400 (Junior Seminar) and an additional two seminars at the 400- or 500-level. Seven of the 10 courses must be taught by Art and Archaeology departmental faculty. Students must take at least one course in each of the following three distribution areas: Group 1 (ancient), Group 2 (medieval/early modern), and Group 3 (19th century to the present).  ART 100, ART 400 and ART 401 count as departmentals but not as distribution courses. In choosing courses to satisfy requirements, students are encouraged to explore a range of geographies and a range of media, e.g., architecture, painting, sculpture, photography, works on paper, film.

Cognates

No more than two cognate courses taken in other departments (including the Program in Visual Arts) may be counted toward the 10 departmentals. This includes summer courses. Students participating in the Study Abroad Program may be allowed to count more than two courses taken overseas as departmentals. All cognate courses must be approved by the director of undergraduate studies prior to enrollment, based on the submission of a syllabus and course description. Courses cross-listed with the Department of Art and Archaeology automatically count as departmentals, but do not count toward the departmental honors GPA.

Junior Seminar

During the fall of junior year, all majors must take the junior seminar (ART 400). The course introduces students to various methods used by art historians and archaeologists, and many assignments relate directly to their junior independent work. Students who are abroad during the fall of junior year can complete the junior seminar during the fall term of their senior year.

Practice of Art Track

A total of 10 courses, of which at least six must be from the Program in Visual Arts and four must be from the Department of Art and Archaeology and taught by Art and Archaeology faculty.

The visual arts courses must include: two studio courses in at least two different media; two studio courses at the 300- or 400 level; VIS 392 Issues in Contemporary Art; and VIS 416 Exhibition Issues and Methods or VIS 417 Film Seminar. The Department of Art and Archaeology courses must include one course from Group 1 (ancient) or Group 2 (medieval/early modern) and one course from Group 3 (19th century to the present). The remaining two courses may come from any group. When multiple courses are selected from the same group, breadth in chronological and geographic focus among them is encouraged.

Courses for film students must include: two studio courses at any level in two different media (screenwriting courses are accepted as a different medium from film production courses); two studio courses at the 300- or 400 level; VIS 392; VIS 419 (taken in the spring of junior year). The Department of Art and Archaeology courses must include: one course from Group 1 (ancient) or Group 2 (medieval/early modern); one course from Group 3 (19th century to the present); and two from any group. For two ART courses, film students may substitute film courses cross-listed with ART. 

Practice of Art students are strongly encouraged to enroll in ART 400. The course does not carry a Group designation, but counts toward the total of four ART courses for Practice of Art students.  

Cognates

Up to two courses in studio art or art history may be taken at other institutions during the summers with prior approval by the director of undergraduate studies (for History of Art courses) or the director of the Program in Visual Arts (for Practice of Art courses). Courses taken as part of the Study Abroad Program may be allowed to count as departmentals with prior approval from the director of undergraduate studies and the director of the Program in Visual Arts.

Junior Seminar

During the fall of junior year, all majors must take the junior seminar, VIS 392 Issues in Contemporary Art. Beginning with the Class of 2023, film students will also be required to take VIS 392. VIS 392 coincides with admission to the junior studios and investigates the history, challenges and rewards of studio practice. Through readings, discussions, studio critiques and a culminating exhibition of works in progress, VIS 392 provides the foundation for students' independent creative development, as well as the impetus for beginning to be able to articulate the historical precedents and ambitions of their work. Students are also strongly encouraged to take ART 400, the junior methods seminar in the Department of Art and Archaeology.

Departmental Tracks

History of Art Track

Majors in this track pursue the study and criticism of the visual arts and the investigation of material culture from a wide range of historical periods.

Practice of Art Track

Majors in this track explore the traditions, thought processes and methods of making visual art in connection with a liberal arts education. Studio courses are offered in painting, drawing, printmaking, graphic design, media, sculpture, photography, film and video production. Students also study art history and theory.

Independent Work

History of Art Track

Junior Independent Work

Junior Independent Work (JIW) begins in the fall, in the context of the junior seminar (ART 400), and continues into the spring with a faculty adviser whom the student selects in consultation with the director of undergraduate studies. JIW consists of a research paper of approximately 30–40 pages (7,500–10,000 words) on any topic related to visual and material culture. Assignments in ART 400 help students conceptualize and implement their research agendas. The JIW requirement in History of Art includes two colloquia with the Practice of Art cohort, one in the fall and one in the spring.

Senior Independent Work

The senior independent work consists of a year-long research project of approximately 60–80 pages (15,000–20,000 words). The student selects a faculty adviser in the spring of their junior year and submits a progress report to the director of undergraduate studies by mid-November of their senior year. For further deadlines see the Undergraduate Handbook; for further details on thesis writing and research, see the Independent Work Guide in the History of Art. The thesis grade is the average of the grades given by the faculty adviser and a second faculty reader. The Senior Independent Work requirement in History of Art includes two colloquia with the Practice of Art cohort, one in the fall and one in the spring.

Practice of Art Track

Junior Independent Work

Junior independent work begins in the fall, in the context of the junior seminar. It continues into the spring in partnership with two faculty advisers, one from VIS and one from ART. Students are provided with studio space and prepare independent work over the course of the year, culminating in an exhibition as part of the Spring Junior Group Thesis Show. Film students work throughout their junior year to create a junior film.

All Practice of Art juniors assemble a writing portfolio consisting of multiple short essays amounting to approximately 10 pages (2,500 words). The essays reflect on the creating process and discuss the relation of the work to the student’s broader studies, especially in art history. The essays should include a bibliography. The grade for independent work is the average of the grade from the VIS and ART advisers. For further description of the portfolios, see the Undergraduate Handbook.

The Junior Independent Work requirement in Practice of Art includes two colloquia with the History of Art cohort, one in the fall and one in the spring.

Senior Independent Work

By the end of the second week of the fall term of senior year, students must have three advisers, including one from the Department of Art and Archaeology faculty, who is selected in consultation with the director of undergraduate studies. The senior independent work is a major studio project completed by the end of the spring term, done in consultation with the student’s advisers, and a writing portfolio consisting of multiple short essays amounting to approximately 20 pages (5,000 words). The essays reflect on the creating process and discuss the relation of the work to the student's broader studies, especially in art history. The essays should include a bibliography. For further description of the portfolios, see the Undergraduate Handbook. Students are assigned semiprivate studios on the second floor of 185 Nassau. Students present their work in an exhibition at the end of the year at the Lewis Center. An “Advisers' Thesis Critique” is performed by the ART and VIS advisers in the presence of the exhibit. The grade for the senior independent work is the average of the grade given by the ART and VIS advisers during the thesis critique and for the written component. 
 

The senior independent work requirement in Practice of Art includes two colloquia with the History of Art cohort, one in the fall and one in the spring.

Senior Departmental Examination

History of Art Track

The senior comprehensive departmental examination ("Comps") consists of a one-hour oral examination discussing the senior thesis and also covering material from departmental courses. It is attended by three faculty members, consisting of the adviser of the senior thesis, the second reader, and one additional faculty member. The exam grade is the average of the grades given by the three examiners.

Practice of Art Track

The senior departmental examination  in the Practice of Arts has two parts. (1) A one-hour critical discussion (the “Crit”) of the senior thesis exhibition in the latter half of the spring term, in the presence of each student's exhibition. The discussion is open to all Program in Visual Arts faculty and Practice of Art/certificate students. All Visual Arts faculty who attend the Crit will grade it, and those grades will be averaged. (2) Practice of Art students participate in the same comprehensive exam ("Comps") as the History of Art students (see above). The VIS primary adviser and the ART adviser will be two of the three faculty present at the comprehensive exam; the three grades will be averaged for the Comps grade. The final grade on the transcript for the departmental examination is the average of the Crit grade and the Comps grade.    

Study Abroad

Study abroad can be a richly rewarding part of any concentration in the Department of Art and Archaeology. Art history courses taken abroad (normally up to two per term or four for a year in a study abroad program) can be preapproved for departmental credit by the director of undergraduate studies. Students generally study abroad during junior year or the first term of senior year. Junior independent work can be completed under the supervision of a departmental faculty member with prior approval and ongoing contact with the faculty adviser. Senior independent work in the fall of senior year may be done overseas, but the spring term work must be done in residence. Students contemplating study abroad should speak with the director of undergraduate studies as early as possible and meet with a study abroad adviser in the Office of International Programs.

Students interested in archaeology may choose to participate in overseas archaeological excavations undertaken by departmental faculty. For further information, contact the program director.

Nonmajors who would like to receive credit for history of art courses taken during a semester or academic year abroad must apply through the Office of International Programs and receive approval for credit from their study abroad adviser. Credit will not be approved for cognates of Princeton's ART100 course at other institutions (i.e., general survey courses in art history), for majors and nonmajors alike.

If students wish to receive credit for history of art courses taken abroad during the summer, they must receive approval from the Office of International Programs as well as the director of undergraduate studies. This applies to both majors and nonmajors.

Preparation for Graduate Study

Students who are contemplating graduate work in the history of art and archaeology are reminded that most graduate programs require a reading knowledge of two or more languages. In some fields German is particularly important. Consult regularly with your field advisers and the director of undergraduate study if you intend to pursue a graduate application.

Additional Information

Resources for Research

Outstanding resources are available for students majoring in art and archaeology. These include the Marquand Library, a noncirculating research library with over 400,000 books; the Princeton University Art Museum; the Index of Medieval Art; the Visual Resources Collection; and the P.Y. and Kinmay W. Tang Center for East Asian Art. Firestone Library also houses extensive holdings of illuminated manuscripts, prints, and photographs in departments including the Manuscripts Division, Graphic Arts Collection, Rare Books and Special Collections, the Cotsen Children's Library and the Western Americana Collection. Staff members in the University Art Museum and the Index of Medieval Art regularly offer courses or otherwise participate in the department’s teaching activities. Students are encouraged to take advantage of the proximity of major museum collections in New York, Philadelphia and elsewhere.

Honors

Honors are awarded by a vote of the faculty to students having the highest, weighted grade point average based on grades achieved in departmental courses, junior independent work, senior independent work, the senior oral examination and participation in the majors’ colloquia. Honors are only awarded to students who are members of the graduating class.

Certificate in Archaeology

The Department of Art and Archaeology offers students the opportunity to earn a certificate in archaeology while pursuing the History of Art or Practice of Art tracks or while majoring in another department. The Program in Archaeology aims to provide a broad introduction to the field of archaeology and to allow students to pursue archaeological interests that complement their research in other areas.

Undergraduate students may apply for formal admission to the program during their sophomore year after taking any one of the courses offered by the program. A freshman seminar or other alternative may be approved by the program director.

Certificate in Visual Arts

For certificate requirements, see the description under the Program in Visual Arts.

Faculty

  • Chair

    • Nathan T. Arrington (acting)
    • Rachael Z. DeLue
  • Director of Undergraduate Studies

    • Basile C. Baudez (spring)
    • Beatrice E. Kitzinger (fall)
  • Director of Graduate Studies

    • Carolyn Yerkes
  • Professor

    • Bridget Alsdorf
    • Nathan T. Arrington
    • Charlie Barber
    • Tina M. Campt
    • Rachael Z. DeLue
    • Hal Foster
    • Thomas D. Kaufmann
    • Michael Koortbojian
    • Chika O. Okeke-Agulu
    • Andrew M. Watsky
  • Associate Professor

    • Brigid Doherty
    • Anna Arabindan Kesson
    • Beatrice E. Kitzinger
    • Carolina Mangone
    • Irene V. Small
    • Cheng-hua Wang
    • Carolyn Yerkes
  • Assistant Professor

    • Basile C. Baudez
    • Monica C. Bravo
    • Samuel Holzman
  • Associated Faculty

    • Caroline Cheung, Classics
    • Devin A. Fore, German
    • Elena Fratto, Slavic Lang & Literatures
    • Branko Glisic, Civil and Environmental Eng
    • Dimitri H. Gondicas, Council of the Humanities
    • Anthony T. Grafton, History
    • Spyros Papapetros, Architecture
    • Rachel L. Price, Spanish & Portuguese
    • Brian R. Steininger, East Asian Studies
    • Jeffrey Whetstone, Lewis Center for the Arts
  • Lecturer with Rank of Professor

    • James C. Steward
  • Lecturer

    • Ronni Baer
    • Mateusz Falkowski
    • Caroline I. Harris
    • Janna Israel
    • Janet E. Kay
    • Lucy Partman
    • Rachel C. Patt
    • AnnMarie Perl
    • Sucharita Ray
    • Henry D. Schilb
    • Jessica Williams Stark
    • Eleni Stavroulaki
    • Danai Thomaidis
    • Veronica M. White

For a full list of faculty members and fellows please visit the department or program website.

Courses

ART 100 - An Introduction to the History of Art: Meanings in the Visual Arts Fall LA

Introduction to the histories of art and the practice of art history. You will encounter a range of arts (including painting, sculpture, architecture, photography, prints) and artistic practices from diverse historical periods, regions, and cultures. Faculty members of the Department of Art and Archaeology lecture in their fields of expertise; precepts balance hands-on work, readings, and student projects. A. Perl

ART 102 - An Introduction to the History of Architecture (also ARC 102) Spring LA

A survey of architectural history in the West, from ancient Egypt to 20th-century America, stressing a critical approach to architectural form through the analysis of context, expressive content, function, structure, style, and theory. Discussion will focus on key monuments and readings that have shaped the history of architecture. Two lectures, one preceptorial. C. Yerkes, S. Holzman

ART 105 - Lab in Conservation of Art (also CEE 105/EGR 105) Not offered this year SEL

ART 200 - The Art and Archaeology of the Ancient Near East and Egypt (also AFS 202/NES 205) Not offered this year LA

The art and archaeology of the ancient Near East and Egypt from the end of the prehistoric period, ca. 3000 B.C., to the beginning of the Iron Age, ca. 650 B.C. Focus on the rise of complex societies and the attendant development of architectural and artistic forms that express the needs and aspirations of these societies. Occasional readings in original texts in translation will supplement the study of art and architecture. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 1 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

ART 201 - Roman Architecture (also ARC 209) Not offered this year LA

This course will examine the architecture of the Romans, from its mythic beginnings (as recounted, for example, by Vitruvius) to the era of the high empire. Topics will include: city planning; the transformation of the building trades; civic infrastructure; and the full breadth of Roman structures, both public and private. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 1 distribution requirement. M. Koortbojian

ART 203 - Roman Art Fall LA

Roman painting, sculpture, architecture, and other arts from the early Republic to the late Empire, focusing upon the official monuments of Rome itself and the civic and private art of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Emphasis on historical representation, imperial propaganda, portraiture, narrative technique, and classical art theory. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 1 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. M. Koortbojian

ART 205 - Medieval Art in Europe (also HLS 205) Not offered this year LA

The art of Europe from the fall of Rome to the Renaissance. Emphasis on the effects of cultural, religious, and political change on artistic production. Works treated include the Lindisfarne Gospels, the Bayeux Tapestry, Chartres Cathedral, and the Ste. Chapelle. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

ART 206 - Byzantine Art and Architecture (also HLS 206) Not offered this year LA

Art and architecture of the Eastern Mediterranean and Eastern Europe ca. 600-1500. The course will focus on the art of the Byzantine Empire and its capital, Constantinople, and on its broad sphere of cultural influence (Russia, Armenia, Georgia, Sicily, Venice, Serbia, Bulgaria, Rumania). An examination of principal factors that shaped the artistic legacy of eastern Christendom during the Middle Ages. Offered in alternate years. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. C. Barber

ART 209 - Between Renaissance and Revolution: Baroque Art in Europe Not offered this year LA

This course surveys major changes in European Art from the end of the Renaissance until the Age of Revolution c. 1800. Paintings, sculpture, prints, drawings, and architecture by such artists as Caravaggio, Rubens, Rembrandt, Vermeer, Velazquez, and Bernini will be considered in their political, religious, social and intellectual context. Extensive study of works of art at first hand in the Princeton University Art Museum, and in New York. T. Kaufmann

ART 210 - Italian Renaissance Painting and Sculpture Not offered this year LA

A selective survey, 1260-1600, allowing discussion of themes such as patronage; functions; materials and techniques; emulation as motivation; social, political, and economic issues; aesthetics; and the professions of the artist and of the art historian. Artists treated include Giotto, Masaccio, Donatello, Bellini, Leonardo, Raphael, Michelangelo, and Titian. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

ART 211 - Major Figures in American Art Not offered this year LA

A selective overview of key figures from the 18th to the 20th century, with each lecture devoted to a single painter, architect, or sculptor as representative of significant themes in the history of American art. Among the artists considered are Copley, Jefferson, Cole, Homer, Eakins, Richardson, Saint-Gaudens, Olmsted, and O'Keeffe. Two lectures, one preceptorial. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 3 distribution requirement. R. DeLue

ART 212 - European Art: Revolutions and Avant-Gardes Not offered this year HALA

A broad study of European painting and sculpture from the French Revolution to 1900 with special attention to art's relationship to social and cultural changes. Lectures will explore a range of themes including art and revolution, the rise of landscape, shifting conceptions of realism, and the birth of "modernism" and the avant-garde. Emphasis on major figures including David, Canova, Goya, Ingres, Turner, Courbet, Manet, Monet, Degas, Rodin, Van Gogh, and Cézanne. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 3 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. B. Alsdorf

ART 213 - Modernist Art: 1900 to 1950 Fall LA

A critical study of the major movements, paradigms, and documents of modernist art from fauvism to art brut. Among the topics covered are primitivism, abstraction, collage, the readymade, machine aesthetics, photographic reproduction, the art of the insane, artists in political revolution, anti-modernism. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 3 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. H. Foster

ART 214 - Contemporary Art: 1950 - 2000 Not offered this year LA

A critical study of the major movements, paradigms, and documents of postwar art--abstract-expressionist, pop, minimalist, conceptual, process and performance, site-specific, etc. Special attention to crucial figures (e.g., Jackson Pollock, Andy Warhol, Robert Smithson) and problems (e.g., "the neo-avant-garde," popular culture, feminist theory, political controversies, "postmodernism"). For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 3 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. A. Perl

ART 216 - Aesthetics and Politics of Chinese Painting (also EAS 213) Not offered this year LA

Thematic introduction to the role of painting in Chinese cultural history, with attention to the interaction of stylistic standards, materials, and techniques; the impact of regional geographies on landscape painting; the influence of class, gender, and social behavior on figure painting; the engagement of art with traditional philosophies and 20th-century socialism; and the shape of time in art-historical development. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 distribution requirement. Three lectures. C. Wang

ART 217 - The Arts of Japan (also EAS 217) Not offered this year LA

Surveys arts of Japan from the pre-historic period through the present day. Painting, sculpture, and architecture form the core of study. Examines critical role of other forms, including calligraphy, lacquer, and ceramics. Takes close account of the broader cultural and historical contexts in which art was made. Topics include ongoing tension in Japanese art between foreign and indigenous, role of ritual in Japan's visual arts, re-uses of the past, changing loci of patronage, and formats and materials of Japanese art. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 1, 2, or 3 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. A. Watsky

ART 219 - Northern Renaissance Art Not offered this year LA

The course surveys painting, prints, and sculpture in the Netherlands, Germany, and France from about 1350-1550. With emphasis on the work of major figures such as Van Eyck, Bosch, Dürer, and Bruegel, the course will consider changing circumstances of artistic production, function, iconography, and patronage. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

ART 221 - Art of Hispania (also LAS 221) Not offered this year LA

Painting, sculpture, and architecture in the Spanish-speaking world from 1492 to 1810. The great flowering of Spanish art, as represented by such figures as El Greco, Velázquez, and Goya, in its cultural and historical context, including developments in Latin America. Some attention to the art of Portugal. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

ART 228 - Art and Power in the Middle Ages (also HLS 228/HUM 228/MED 228) HALA

In twelve weeks this course will examine major art works from the twelve centuries (300-1500 CE) that encompass the European Middle Ages. Presenting works from Europe and the Middle East, the course will introduce students to the art of Catholicism and Orthodoxy, Judaism and Islam; the great courts of the Eastern- and Holy Roman Empires, and the roving Vikings, Celts and Visigoths. Students will not only be invited to consider how art can represent and shape notions of sacred and secular power, but will also come to understand how the work of 'art' in this period is itself powerful and, sometimes, dangerous. Staff

ART 230 - Early Islamic Art and Architecture (also NES 230) Not offered this year LA

A survey of art in the Islamic world from 600 through 1200. The course examines the formation of Islamic art and its roots in the art of late antiquity. Emphasis will be on the development of various types of religious and secular architecture and their decoration (wall-painting, carved stucco and wood, mosaic and epigraphy) in the central regions of the early Islamic world. Topics such as textiles, metalwork, and ceramics will be considered. For department majors, this course satisfies either the Group 1 or 2 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

ART 232 - The Arts of the Islamic World (also NES 232) Not offered this year LA

A survey of the architecture and the arts of various Islamic cultures between northern Africa and the Indian subcontinent from the seventh to the 20th century. Emphasis will be on major monuments of religious and secular architecture, architectural decoration, calligraphy, and painting. Background in Islam or Middle Eastern languages is not a prerequisite. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 1, 2, or 3 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

ART 233 - Renaissance Art and Architecture (also ARC 233) LA

What was the Renaissance? This class explores the major artistic currents that swept northern and southern Europe from the fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries in an attempt to answer that question. In addition to considering key themes such as the revival of antiquity, imitation and license, religious devotion, artistic style, and the art market, we will survey significant works by artists and architects including Donatello, Raphael, Leonardo, Jan van Eyck, Dürer, and Michelangelo. Precepts will focus on direct study of original objects, with visits to Princeton's collections of paintings, sculpture, prints, drawings, books and maps. Staff

ART 242 - The Experience of Modernity: A Survey of Modern Architecture in the West (also ARC 242/CEE 242) Not offered this year LA

An analysis of the emergence of modern architecture from the late 19th century to World War II, in light of new methodologies. The course will focus not only on major monuments but also on issues of gender, class, and ethnicity to provide a more pluralistic perspective on the experience of modernity. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 3 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

ART 245 - Introduction to 20th-Century African American Art (also AAS 245) Fall LA

ART 248 - Photography and the Making of the Modern World Fall LA

A survey of photography from its multiple inventions in the early 19th century to its omnipresence (and possible obsolescence) in the 21st. Themes will include photography's power to define the "real"; its emulation and eventual transformation of the traditional fine arts; and its role in the construction of personal and collective memories. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 3 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. M. Bravo

ART 256 - Writing as Art Not offered this year LA

In China, Japan, Islamic world, and other cultures, writing is ranked as highest of the visual arts, far above painting, sculpture, even architecture. Forms taken by beautiful writing are at least as diverse as the writing systems that underlie them: think of Egyptian writing, Chinese calligraphy, and Roman monumental inscriptions. This course introduces world's major calligraphic traditions and examine the functions of beautiful writing, reasons for its existence and prestige, and factors that shape styles of writing. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 distribution requirement. One three-hour seminar. Staff

ART 262 - Introduction to Pre-20th Century Black Diaspora Art (also AAS 244/LAS 244) Fall CDLA

ART 266 - Introduction to Pre-Columbian Art Not offered this year LA

General survey of the indigenous civilizations of North America, Central America, and South America. The goals are to demonstrate methods and techniques employed by art historians working in this area to study the past, and to examine how art history, archaeology, and ethnohistory contribute to the interdisciplinary study of ancient peoples. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 1 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

ART 267 - Mesoamerican Art (also ANT 366/LAS 267) Not offered this year LA

This course acquaints students with the art, architecture, and archaeology of ancient Mexico and Central America. The course considers a wide range of cultures spanning from the first arrival of humans at the end of the Upper Paleolithic period through the 16th century Spanish invasion. Major culture groups to be considered include Olmec, Teotihuacan, Maya, Zapotec, and Aztec. Precepts will include theoretically-focused discussions, debate regarding contested scholarly interpretations, and hands-on work with objects at the Princeton University Art Museum. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 1 distribution requirement. B. Just

ART 270 - Photography and Society Not offered this year LA

What is the role of photography in contemporary society? By looking at photographic forms, ranging from commercial portraits, ID cards, family albums, and fashion and advertising photography to newspaper and magazine illustrations, this course explores diverse ways that photographs have come to define and challenge the "real." Students will talk with professionals in fields of journalism and fashion, examine controversies over digital manipulation and politically charged photos, and consider historical sources of contemporary styles. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 3 distribution requirement. One three-hour seminar. Staff

ART 300 - Greek Archaeology of the Bronze Age Not offered this year LA

A study of the culture of Greece and the Aegean from the Early Bronze Age to the eighth century B.C. Special emphasis is placed on the Minoan-Mycenaean civilization, the Dark Ages of the early first millennium, and the age of Homer. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 1 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Offered in alternate years. Staff

ART 301 - The Art of the Iron Age: The Near East and Early Greece (also CLA 302/HLS 301) Not offered this year LA

The course will focus on the formation of new artistic traditions in the ancient Near East and late-period Egypt after 1000 B.C.E. and then investigate their interrelationships with early Greece and the controversial theories of modern scholars of the dependence of early Greece on the ancient Near East. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 1 distribution requirement. Two 90-minute classes. N. Arrington

ART 306 - Classical Athens: Art and Institutions (also CLA 306) Not offered this year LA

An examination of the culture and institutions of classical Athens, its buildings, monuments, and works of art, set against the historical background of the city's growth. Aspects of government, religious festivals, society, and daily life are investigated. The archaeological record is enriched by study of ancient historical sources in translation. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 1 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

ART 308 - Roman Cities and Countryside: Republic to Empire Not offered this year LA

Roman urban and suburban architecture throughout the Roman provinces from the late Republic to late Empire, focusing upon the Romanization of the provinces from Britain in the northwest to Arabia in the southeast. Town planning, imperial monuments, villas and sanctuaries, domestic and public architecture, and interior decoration considered. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 1 distribution requirement. One three-hour class. Staff

ART 310 - The Icon (also HLS 354/MED 307) Spring LA

In this class we will examine the history, function, theory and meaning of the icon. We will also examine the icon's influence upon the discourses of Modernism. A more practical aspect of this class is that participants in the course will work with the Princeton University Art Museum's icon collection and with its collection of icon painter's preparatory drawings. The class will provide participants with a broad grounding in questions pertaining to the icon. C. Barber

ART 311 - Arts of the Medieval Book (also HUM 311/MED 311) HA

This course explores the technology and function of books in historical perspective, asking how illuminated manuscripts were designed to meet (and shape) cultural and intellectual demands in the medieval period. Surveying the major genres of European book arts between the 7th-15th centuries, we study varying approaches to pictorial space, page design, and information organization; relationships between text and image; and technical aspects of book production. We work primarily from Princeton's collection of original manuscripts and manuscript facsimiles. Assignments include the option to create an original artist's book for the final project. B. Kitzinger

ART 315 - Medieval Architecture (also ARC 315) Not offered this year LA

Historical patterns of development in Western European architecture between 300 and 1300: Early Christian through Gothic, with emphasis on Romanesque and Gothic innovations. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

ART 316 - The Formation of Christian Art (also CLA 213/HLS 316) HALA

Art in late antiquity has often been characterized as an art in decline, but this judgment is relative, relying on standards formulated for art of other periods. Challenging this assumption, we will examine the distinct and powerful transformations within the visual culture of the period between the third and sixth centuries AD. This period witnesses the mutation of the institutions of the Roman Empire into those of the Christian Byzantine Empire. The fundamental change in religious identity that was the basis for this development directly impacted the art from that era that will be the focus of this course. C. Barber

ART 318 - Medieval Manuscript Illumination Not offered this year LA

A technical and historical introduction to manuscript illumination from the invention of the codex to the advent of the printed book. Topics include the history of script and ornament, genres of illuminated manuscripts, the varying relations between text and image, owners of books, circumstances of production. Extensive work with Princeton's manuscript collections. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 distribution requirement. Two 90-minute classes. Offered in alternate years. Staff

ART 319 - Italian Trecento Art Not offered this year LA

Painting and sculpture of the formative years of the early Renaissance in Italy (ca. 1250-1400) with emphasis on the cultural, social, and religious concerns that found expression in art. Topics include the relationship between art and piety, the effect of the Black Death, and the rediscovery of the classical heritage. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

ART 320 - Rome, the Eternal City (also ARC 320) Not offered this year LA

The fabric and image of the city seen in planning, architecture, and the works of artists and writers. Attention to the city as an ideal and an example, from its foundation to the present, with emphasis on major periods. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

ART 323 - World Art History Spring HA

The class surveys connections in art of different cultures and continents throughout the world from the first civilizations to the present. Attention will be paid to distinctive and related forms of culture and their expression in art and architecture that includes trade, migration, gift exchanges, war and economics. T. Kaufmann

ART 324 - The Birth of a Profession: Architects, Architecture and Engineers in 18th-Century Europe (also ARC 324) HA

The 18th century saw the emergence of the first architectural and engineering schools. Architects and engineers started to compete all over Europe in a time when technical knowledge and efficiency were becoming as important as experience and learnedness. This course provides students with a survey of 18th-century European architecture in the light of the rivalry between two trades on the verge of professionalization. The first weeks will be devoted to the actors of the building world before focusing on the fields of contest between architects and engineers and how this battle defined the nature of each profession, between art and science. Staff

ART 325 - An Introduction to Prints and Drawings LA

This course will focus upon prints or drawings studied from original works of art. All periods of European art may be considered along with occasional Asian objects. Classes will be conducted in the Princeton University Art Museum, New York (museum and dealer and/or auction house), and possibly Washington D.C. (National Gallery of Art). For fall 2016 the course will study drawings from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. Staff

ART 328 - History of Architectural Theory (also ARC 308) Fall HA

ART 331 - Weimar Germany: Painting, Photography, Film (also ECS 370/GER 370) Not offered this year LA

ART 332 - The Landscape of Allusion: Garden and Landscape Architecture, 1450-1750 (also ARC 332) Not offered this year LA

The concept of nature from the Renaissance through the 18th century as seen in European gardens and landscape architecture. Major consideration will be given to the Italian villa-garden complex, the French classical garden, and the English romantic garden and park as evidence of large-scale planning. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

ART 333 - Renaissance and Baroque Architecture (also ARC 333) Not offered this year LA

European architecture from 1420 to the mid-18th century with particular emphasis on its historical and social background. The various architectural movements--Renaissance, baroque, and rococo--are studied in terms of important architects and buildings especially of Italy, France, and England. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. C. Yerkes

ART 334 - The Renaissance (also COM 314) Not offered this year LA

ART 337 - Court, Cloister, and City: Art and Architecture in Central and Eastern Europe (also GER 337) Not offered this year LA

Painting, sculpture, and architecture in Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Germany, and Russia, ca. 1450-1800. Special emphasis is placed on the changing roles of court, city, cloister, and aristocracy and the relation of local styles to international trends, including art elsewhere in Europe. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 distribution requirement. Offered in alternate years. One three-hour seminar. T. Kaufmann

ART 343 - Topics in 19th-Century Art Not offered this year LA

An often interdisciplinary study of themes and problems in 19th-century art with special attention to recent writing in the field. Possible topics include: the persistence of realism, Impressionism and its aftermath, shifting representations of masculinity and femininity, and the formation of the first European avant-gardes. The course may also center on a particular artistic medium or geographical location. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 3 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. B. Alsdorf

ART 344 - Topics in 20th-Century Art Not offered this year LA

An often interdisciplinary study of themes and problems in 20th-century art with special attention to recent writing in the field. Possible topics include: models of abstraction, critiques of the traditional mediums of art, artistic responses to technological transformation and/or political revolution, and artistic explorations of the unconscious. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 3 distribution requirement. Two 90-minute classes. I. Small

ART 347 - Architecture and the Visual Arts (also ARC 302) Spring LA

ART 348 - Masters and Movements of 20th-Century Photography Not offered this year LA

By focusing on six major figures (such as Stieglitz, Weston, Moholy-Nagy, Evans, Frank, Sherman), this course examines the ways that photography was transformed from a poor stepchild of the fine arts to a staple of museum exhibitions. Topics will include the impact of abstraction on photography; the interactions between art photography and the new print and cinematic mass media; and the development of photographic collections and criticism. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 3 distribution requirement. Two 90-minute classes. A. McCauley

ART 350 - Chinese Cinema (also EAS 356) Not offered this year LA

Thematic studies in Chinese film (Republic, People's Republic, Taiwan, Hong Kong), from the 1930s to the present with emphasis on recent years, viewed in relation to traditional and modern Chinese visual arts and literature, colonialism and globalism, Communist politics, gender and family values, ethnicity and regionalism, melodrama and the avant-garde, the cinematic market, artistic censorship, and other social issues. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 3 distribution requirement. One three-hour seminar, one evening viewing session. Staff

ART 351 - Traditional Chinese Architecture (also ARC 310/EAS 357) Not offered this year LA

Thematic introduction to traditional Chinese architecture, urban design, and garden building, with attention to principles and symbolism of siting and design; building techniques; modularity of structures and interchangeability of palace, temple, tomb, and domestic design; regional variation. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 distribution requirement. Two 90-minute classes. Staff

ART 354 - The Image Multiplied: Prints from Then to Now Not offered this year LA

Surveys the history of prints in Europe and the United States from 1400 to the present. It will combine two main approaches: first, the distinctive history of printmaking, including origins, evolution of techniques, and the political, religious, and cultural functions of prints; and second, individual artistic developments, with emphasis on the work of major printmakers, iconography, and formal innovations. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 or 3 distribution requirement. One three-hour seminar. L. Giles

ART 366 - Ancient Arts of Mexico (also LAS 366) Not offered this year LA

Detailed examination of the Pre-Columbian arts of the indigenous civilizations of Mexico. The first part of the course will examine the architecture, monumental art, and craft art of the Aztecs and their contemporaries, the Huaztecs, Tarascans, Mixtecs, Zapotecs, and Mayas. The rest of the course is designed as a survey of the major Mexican art traditions that preceded them. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 1 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

ART 370 - History of American Art to 1900 Not offered this year LA

An introduction to the history of art in the United States from the colonial period to 1900. Works of art will be examined in terms of their cultural, social, intellectual, and historical contexts. Students will consider artistic practices as they intersect with other fields, including science and literature. Topics include the visual culture of natural history, fashioning the self, race and representation, landscape and nation, art and the Civil War, gender politics, art and medicine, and realism and deception. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 3 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. R. DeLue

ART 371 - History of American Art, 1900 to the Present Not offered this year LA

Introduction to the history of American art, 1900 to present. Artists and works of art are examined in terms of cultural, social, intellectual, and historical contexts. Students will consider artistic practices as they intersect with other fields, including science and literature. Topics include modern metropolis, art and social reform, Harlem Renaissance, early film, identity politics, abstract art, machine age, post-modernism, and globalization. Visits to the Princeton University Art Museum are an integral part of the course. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 3 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. R. DeLue

ART 373 - What is Black Art: Art History and the Black Diaspora (also AAS 373) Not offered this year LA

An introduction to the history of African American art and visual culture from the colonial period to the present. Artists and works of art will be considered in terms of their social, intellectual, and historical contexts. Students will consider artistic practices as they intersect with other cultural spheres, including science, politics, religion, and literature. Topics and readings will be drawn from the field of art history as well as from cultural studies, critical race theory, and the history of the Atlantic world. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 3 distribution requirement. Two lectures, one preceptorial. A. Kesson

ART 374 - Postblack - Contemporary African American Art (also AAS 372/AMS 372) Not offered this year CDLA

ART 377 - Modernist Photography and Literature (also GER 373) Not offered this year LA

ART 383 - Topics in German Film History and Theory (also ECS 308/GER 308/VIS 317) Fall/Spring ECLA

ART 391 - Art in Germany Since 1960 (also GER 371) Not offered this year LA

ART 392 - Artist and Studio (also VIS 392) Fall LA

ART 400 - Junior Seminar Fall LA

The Junior Seminar is an introduction to the myriad subjects, methods, and strategies of art history. The course examines the different kinds of evidence and methodological tools that have been used to identify, explain, and contextualize works of art as well as other kinds of objects, artifacts, and cultural phenomena. In other words, this seminar considers what art historians do, and how and why they do it. In addition, majors will learn how to use resources such as the library and the museum, and how to undertake substantive written research projects. Students begin their Junior Independent Work in this seminar. One three-hour seminar. B. Kitzinger

ART 401 - Archaeological Methods and Theory Spring EC

Introduces students to the methods and thinking of archaeologists and prehistorians. Topics include the concept of prehistory; ethnographic analogy and the interpretation of material remains; relating material culture to texts; schemes of cultural interpretation; and how to read an excavation report. This seminar is required for the Certificate in Archaeology. One three-hour seminar. N. Arrington

ART 406 - Advanced Seminar in American Studies (also AMS 403/ENV 403) Not offered this year CDLA

ART 410 - Seminar. Greek Art (also HLS 410) Not offered this year LA

Topics of Greek art and architecture that will normally deal with the Hellenistic period (323-31 B.C.). Depending on student interest, special subjects may also be treated in relation to the Hellenistic period, such as classicism, or the course may concentrate on thematic studies, such as architectural sculpture. Two 90-minute seminars. Prerequisite: a course in ancient art or instructor's permission. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 1 distribution requirement. Offered in alternate years. N. Arrington

ART 420 - Seminar in Asian Art Not offered this year LA

A topic in Chinese or Japanese art, explored in depth. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 1, 2, or 3 distribution requirement. One three-hour seminar. Prerequisite: a course in Asian art or the instructor's permission. A. Watsky

ART 423 - Landscape Art in China (also EAS 423) Not offered this year LA

A course about Chinese concepts of nature and human nature, theories and traditions of landscape art. Weekly consideration of such themes as replicating and transforming the landscape; submission to/control of nature; landscape as political allegory; pilgrimage and exile; gardens and artists' studios; landscape magic in ancient China; endangered pandas, power dams, and the technology of modern art. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 or 3 distribution requirement. One three-hour seminar. Staff

ART 424 - Virtue, Tyranny, and the Political Functions of Chinese Painting Not offered this year LA

The patrons of Chinese painting and many of its leading artists were politicians by profession, both royal and commoner-bureaucrats, and much of their art was designed to fulfill political functions: propaganda, moral self-cultivation, self-advertisement and self-consolation, expressions of support, resistance, and resignation. Half of the course covers premodern China, half covers the 20th century. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 or 3 distribution requirement. One three-hour seminar. Prerequisite: a course in Chinese art history or instructor's permission. Staff

ART 425 - The Japanese Print (also EAS 425) Not offered this year LA

An examination of Japanese woodblock prints from the 17th through the 19th century. This seminar considers formal and technical aspects of woodblock prints, and the varied subject matter, including the "floating world" of prostitution and the theater, Japanese landscape, and burgeoning urban centers. Students explore the links between literature and prints, especially the re-working of elite classical literary themes in popular prints. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 or 3 distribution requirement. Prerequisite: at least one course in art history or Japanese studies, or permission of instructor. One three-hour seminar. A. Watsky

ART 430 - Seminar. Medieval Art (also HLS 430/MED 430) Not offered this year EMLA

Topics in medieval art and/or architecture. Prerequisite: a course in the art of this period or instructor's permission. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 distribution requirement. One three-hour seminar. C. Barber

ART 438 - Representation of Faith and Power: Islamic Architecture in Its Context (also NES 428) Not offered this year LA

The seminar explores the means by which messages of political and religious content were conveyed in Islamic architecture. Selected key monuments or ensembles will be discussed on the basis of their specific historical and religious setting. Special attention will be given to the problem of symbolism in Islamic architecture. For department majors, this course satisfies either the Group 1 or 2 distribution requirement. Staff

ART 440 - Seminar. Renaissance Art Not offered this year LA

Topics in 15th- and 16th-century art. Prerequisite: a course in the art of this period or instructor's permission. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 distribution requirement. One three-hour seminar. T. Kaufmann

ART 442 - Learning through Looking: Master Drawings Not offered this year LA

The study of techniques, functions, and connoisseurship of drawings, and their place in the interpretation of the history of art. Drawings ca. 1400-1800 will be the major objects considered. Extensive use of the resources of the art museum. For department majors, this course satisfies either the Group 2 or 3 distribution requirement. Prerequisite: a course in Renaissance or baroque art or instructor's permission. One three-hour seminar. T. Kaufmann

ART 443 - Global Exchange in Art and Architecture (also LAS 443) Not offered this year LA

Examines the global exchange in art and architecture between and among the continents of Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas in the period 1492-1800. The course focuses on the geographical, historical, religious, anthropological, and aesthetic aspects of issues such as cultural encounters, diffusion, transculturation, regionalism, and related topics. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 distribution requirement. One three-hour seminar. T. Kaufmann

ART 445 - Topics in the History and Theory of Architecture in Early-Modern Europe (also ARC 445) Not offered this year LA

Topics will focus on major figures, such as Palladio, Wren, and Piranesi; centers, such as Rome and Venice; or themes, such as architectural theory, the legacy of classical antiquity, and the villa. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 distribution requirement. One three-hour seminar. C. Yerkes

ART 446 - Seminar. Northern European Art of the Late Middle Ages and Early Renaissance Not offered this year LA

This seminar will address various aspects of northern European art during the period late Middle Ages through early Renaissance. Prerequisite: a course in the art of this period or instructor's permission. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 distribution requirement. One three-hour seminar. Staff

ART 448 - Seminar. 17th- and 18th-Century Art (also ECS 448) Not offered this year LA

Topics in 17th- and 18th-century art and architecture. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 2 distribution requirement. Prerequisite: a course in the art of this period or instructor's permission. One three-hour seminar. T. Kaufmann

ART 450 - Seminar. 19th-Century European Art (also FRE 408) Fall LA

This seminar will focus in depth on a specific aspect of art, history, theory, and criticism in Europe between 1789 and 1914. Possible topics include French painting and its critics, portraiture and sociability, shifting conceptions of realism and naturalism, the onset of modernism, and representations of interior space. Prerequisites: a course in the art of this period or permission of the instructor. Visits to area museums. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 3 distribution requirement. One three-hour seminar. B. Alsdorf

ART 452 - Seminar. Modernism: The Ends of Art Not offered this year LA

Does art have an essential nature? Do different mediums--painting, sculpture, photography, film, television, video--have specific ontologies that demand specific methods? How is the autonomy of art debated, and why is this debate so central to modernism? With images and texts by primary artists and critics, the seminar will investigate the "ends" of art in the sense of posited goals and presumed deaths. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 3 distribution requirement. Prerequisite: a course in the art of this period or instructor's permission. One three-hour seminar. H. Foster

ART 454 - Topics in the History of Photography Not offered this year LA

Topics on the aesthetic and stylistic development of photography, including the study of movements and related critical theory, and on the artistic achievement of particular photographers. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 3 distribution requirement. One three-hour seminar. A. McCauley

ART 456 - Seminar. Contemporary Art Not offered this year LA

Topics in contemporary painting, sculpture, or criticism in Europe and America since World War II. Prerequisite: a course in the art of this period or instructor's permission. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 3 distribution requirement. One three-hour seminar. I. Small

ART 458 - Seminar. Modern Architecture (also ARC 458/ECS 458/FRE 458) Not offered this year LA

A study of some of the major themes and movements of modern architecture from the late 19th century to the present day. Students will be encouraged to examine the social and political context, to probe the architects' intellectual background, and consider issues of class and gender in their relation to architectural and urban form. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 3 distribution requirement. One three-hour seminar. Staff

ART 461 - Great Cities of the Greek World (also HLS 461) Not offered this year LA

ART 463 - American Art and Visual Culture Not offered this year LA

An in-depth exploration of the history, theory, and interpretation of American art and visual culture from the colonial period to the present day. Topics covered will include race and representation in American art and culture; art and science; landscape art and theory; the Harlem Renaissance; and the art and artists of the Stieglitz circle. Visits to the Princeton University Art Museum as well as to other area museums (such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York) will be an integral part of this course. For department majors, this course satisfies the Group 3 distribution requirement. One three-hour seminar. R. DeLue

ART 471 - Art, Apartheid, and South Africa (also AAS 411/AFS 411) Spring CDLA