Program Offerings

Offering type

The classics major is a flexible, interdisciplinary program that affords students a range of opportunities to study the cultures, languages, history, politics and intellectual traditions of the ancient Greek and Roman worlds, their contacts with other civilizations of the ancient Mediterranean, resonances in later ages and continued vitality today. The department offers two rigorous and highly flexible majors tracks, in which students chart their own paths within broad areas of study and are encouraged to develop innovative research projects, working closely with world-leading faculty, graduate students engaged in exciting scholarship and highly motivated undergraduate peers within the department. Because of the diversity of the topics studied by the faculty, ranging from Proto-Indo-European linguistics to medieval manuscripts to the cultural politics of the modern Caribbean, the department is able to support students exploring a wide range of subjects and pursuing independent work involving humanistic and social-scientific analysis, creative projects and experimental research. The unusually broad and diverse intellectual range of our program is matched by an intimate, supportive environment in which faculty and students work closely together.

Majors acquire, in the course of their studies, the language skills appropriate to their interests and research plans, either through departmental language courses or summer study (which the department has resources to fund). The relevant competencies will vary substantially depending on interest, and the director of undergraduate studies can advise on the appropriate course of study in order to realize a student’s intellectual and personal ambitions. The department regularly commits substantial funds to enable students to pursue their learning goals through domestic and international summer programs, including language courses, archaeological digs and independent research projects.

Goals for Student Learning

Classics studies textual and material evidence from the ancient Greco-Roman world from an interdisciplinary perspective, integrating approaches from literary studies, history, archaeology, philosophy, linguistics and more. It also places ancient Greece and Rome within the context of the greater Ancient Mediterranean and explores the reception of antiquity in a variety of times and places. Students learn how to evaluate complex and partial evidence and how to analyze premodern societies through texts and objects, while exploring and critiquing concepts and discourses vitally important in today’s world. The sequence of independent work gradually builds research, analysis and communication skills as the students learn to formulate and answer questions appropriate to the scope of each paper, responsive to available evidence, and promising to make an original contribution to our knowledge.  



One course on classical culture, broadly defined: any departmental course, HUM 216–217, HUM 247 or other course approved by the DUS.

Program of Study

Program 1. Classical Studies

The classical studies program offers the opportunity for sustained and focused inquiry into the history, literature and culture of the ancient Mediterranean, as well as the impact of classical antiquity on later periods by using a variety of interpretative methods. The program offers students maximum flexibility to chart their course through departmental and related offerings. The particular program for each student is determined in collaboration with the DUS, and should be coherent and lead to viable research projects. Whatever the individual focus, each student’s program must contain eight courses at the 200 level or above (with limited exceptions as described below), including two at the 300 level, plus the junior seminar.

Five of the eight courses counted toward requirements must be taught by Department of Classics faculty (in general, these courses will have CLA, CLG or LAT as the first course code listing; the DUS can approve exceptions for courses taught by affiliated faculty). Three elective courses may be counted toward the major that are either cross-listed by classics or approved by the DUS as relevant to the student’s program of study. Of the eight courses, one must deal primarily with ancient literature, whether read in the original or in translation; the sequence of CLG/LAT 105-108 may be counted as a single departmental course and used to fulfill this requirement. One course must deal primarily with ancient history; this requirement may be fulfilled by taking any of CLA 216-219 (the Greek and Roman history surveys) or an approved alternative. One course must deal substantially with classical reception or comparative approaches to the ancient world; this requirement may also be fulfilled by study of another language relevant to the student’s interests (Akkadian, Modern Greek, etc., at any course level). Students are otherwise free, in consultation with the DUS, to chart their own path through the department’s offerings.

Program 2. Ancient History

The program offers students a pathway to explore the history of ancient Greece and Rome and their relationships with the neighboring cultures of the Near East, Europe and Africa. It is also ideal for students interested in acquiring training in the academic discipline of history while concentrating on the period spanning the Late Bronze Age (ca. 1700 B.C.E.) to the early medieval and Byzantine worlds (ca. 600 C.E.). Although students may specialize in a particular field of history (political, social, economic, cultural), geographic area or historical period of antiquity, the aim of the program is to provide well-rounded training in the field of history, with a focus on ancient history. Each student’s program must contain eight courses at the 200 level or above (with limited exceptions as described below), including two at the 300 level, plus the junior seminar.

The eight courses taken toward the ancient history track must include one survey course on ancient Greek history (CLA 216 or 217) and one survey course on Roman history (CLA 218 or 219); one course substantially dealing with ancient material culture; and one course on premodern (i.e., pre-1789) history or non-industrial societies beyond Greece and Rome. An additional course that introduces students to the main methods, theories and/or philosophies of history is also strongly encouraged. The remaining elective courses should follow a coherent plan that prepares the student for independent research; ordinarily, any course listed as CLA, CLG or LAT at the 200 level or above will count, and other courses may be approved by the DUS for credit toward the major. One of the courses may be fulfilled by the sequence of CLG/LAT 105–108 or study of another language relevant to the student’s interests at any level. 

Independent Work

Junior Seminar. During the fall of junior year, all majors take the junior seminar (CLA 340). The course introduces students to different fields of study within the department, including literature, ancient history, ancient culture, linguistics and reception studies. Students will gain experience in the methods of their chosen area(s) of study while acquiring an understanding of the history of the discipline and its place in the 21st century. Students will also acquire the skills necessary to pursue independent work. Students who are abroad during the fall of their junior year may complete the junior seminar during the fall semester of their senior year.

Junior Independent Work. In the fall term, each student researches and writes a paper of 12–15 pages on a topic of their choosing under the direction of a faculty adviser. The junior seminar will provide guidance in choosing and researching a topic. In the spring term, students undertake a more ambitious research paper of 20–25 pages. Each student again works closely with a member of the faculty on the project, meeting regularly over the course of the term.

Senior Independent Work. At the end of junior year, majors propose a provisional thesis topic to the DUS along with a list of potential faculty advisers, on the basis of which they are assigned a thesis adviser. The thesis in its final form shall be submitted to the DUS by April 15 (or, when this falls on a weekend, on the following Monday) of senior year.

Senior Departmental Examination

A 30-minute oral examination focusing on the thesis and related research is administered during the Senior Comprehensive Examination Period by a committee consisting of the thesis adviser, thesis second reader and DUS.

Study Abroad

Travel and study in the Mediterranean are important parts of a classical education. The department regularly organizes break-week trips connected to classes and sponsors students wishing to study and conduct research abroad over the summer. In addition, it encourages interested students to participate in one of the many term-time study abroad programs offered, including those at the Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies in Rome and the American School of Classical Studies in Athens.

Certificate in Language and Culture

Students in the Classes of 2024, 2025 and 2026 who are pursuing a major other than classics may still demonstrate command of one of the classical languages and cultures by working toward a certificate in Greek or Roman language and culture.

The requirements are:

  1. Three CLG or three LAT courses, one of which may be at the 200 level while the others must be at the 300 level.
  2. A piece of independent work. This can be satisfied in several ways: (a) by a substantial paper developed from one of the courses taken to fulfill the certificate requirement (this will be in addition to the work required in the course); (b) by a substantial independent paper advised by a member of the classics faculty; or (c) with the agreement of the home department and classics DUS, by a piece of independent work that satisfies the requirements of both classics and the home department. As a substitute for this requirement, students may take either an additional course in their language (CLG or LAT) at the 200- or 300 level, or a CLA course focusing on the culture of their certificate program (Greek or Roman).

Preparation for Graduate Study

The classics major prepares students for any career path they wish to pursue, and is well suited to fulfilling requirements for medical and law school admissions, as well as pursuing teacher training through the Program in Teacher Preparation. In addition to medicine, law and education, classics majors have gone on to pursue distinguished careers in the arts, public service, business, finance, politics, academia, journalism and many other fields. Students intending to continue on to graduate work in classics will in most cases need to acquire advanced competence in both Latin and Greek in order to be competitive for admission to Ph.D. programs (though there are now many good options for deepening knowledge after graduation in the form of post-baccalaureate programs). The department is committed to helping students chart a path after graduation by involving its extensive alumni network, and through tailored advising.

Offering type

A classics minor offers students significant and coherent exposure to an area within the field of classics, which studies the cultures, languages, history, politics and intellectual traditions of the ancient Greek and Roman worlds, their contacts with other civilizations of the ancient Mediterranean, resonances in later ages and continued vitality today.

Goals for Student Learning

Students will follow a flexible pathway that allows them to learn about a particular aspect of the ancient world and the methods that are used to investigate it, as well as evaluate our knowledge and its contemporary uses.


A course with CLA designation, CLG 108, LAT 108 or HUM 216-217.

Admission to the Program

Students can declare any time starting in the spring of sophomore year, but no later than March of junior year to ensure appropriate advising and completion of requirements. Students must contact the Classics DUS to register the minor.

Program of Study

Students pursuing a minor in classics choose one of two pathways. These can combine courses taught in the original language and in translation. Each pathway requires the completion of five courses, four of which must be CLA, CLG 108 or above, or LAT 108 or above. The fifth can be a relevant course offered in another department approved by the DUS.

In addition, a short (ca. 500 words) reflection paper on how the courses add up to a coherent perspective on the ancient world and its reception is required in the student’s final semester.

Pathway 1 Classical Studies with a focal point

Focal points include, but are not limited to:

  • Greek Language, Literature, and Culture
  • Latin Language, Literature and Roman Culture Classics and Reception
  • Medicine, Science, and the Body

At least one of the four classes taken in the department must be CLA 203 (What Is a Classic?) OR CLA 212 (Classical Mythology). It is also possible to use HUM 216–217 in lieu of this one course requirement.

Pathway 2 Ancient History and Material Culture

At least two of the four courses taken in the department must include history survey courses:

  • CLA 216,  Archaic and Classical Greece
  • CLA 217, The Greek World in the Hellenistic Age
  • CLA 218, The Roman Republic
  • CLA 219,  The Roman Empire, 31 B.C. to A.D. 337

Students pursuing the minor must develop their final course of study in either pathway in consultation with the DUS to ensure coherence and approval.


  • Chair

    • Barbara Graziosi
  • Director of Undergraduate Studies

    • Daniela E. Mairhofer
  • Director of Graduate Studies

    • Joshua H. Billings
  • Professor

    • Yelena Baraz
    • Joshua H. Billings
    • Marc Domingo Gygax
    • Andrew M. Feldherr
    • Harriet I. Flower
    • Michael A. Flower
    • Barbara Graziosi
    • Johannes Haubold
    • Brooke A. Holmes
  • Associate Professor

    • Emmanuel C. Bourbouhakis
    • Daniela E. Mairhofer
    • Dan-El Padilla Peralta
  • Assistant Professor

    • Caroline Cheung
    • Peter Kelly
    • Mirjam E. Kotwick
    • Jesse Lundquist
    • Katerina Stergiopoulou
  • Associated Faculty

    • Melissa Lane, Politics
  • Lecturer

    • Melissa Haynes
    • Alan M. Stahl
    • Marcus D. Ziemann

For a full list of faculty members and fellows please visit the department or program website.


CLA 202 - The World of Late Antiquity (also HIS 210/HLS 210/MED 210) Spring HA

CLA 205 - Introduction to Ancient Greek and Roman Philosophy (also HLS 208/PHI 205) Fall EC

CLA 208 - Origins and Nature of English Vocabulary (also ENG 240/LIN 208/TRA 208) Spring LA

The origins and nature of English vocabulary, from proto-Indo-European prehistory to current slang. Emphasis on the Greek and Latin component of English vocabulary, including technical terminology (medical/scientific, legal, and humanistic). Related topics: the alphabet and English spelling, slang and jargon, social and regional variation, vocabulary changes in progress, the "national language'' debate. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

CLA 211 - Rhetoric: Classical Theory, Modern Practice (also HLS 211) Not offered this year EC

Stylish, seductive, surreptitious, and scorned, the ubiquitous art of persuasion will be the focus of this course. We will first approach rhetoric through the classical tradition, learning to recognize basic figures of speech and thought with an eye towards identifying what is persuasive and why. We will then consider how rhetoric continues to thrive, despite abundant moral and philosophical attacks, in public self-presentation, whether of household products, of politicians, or institutions such as Princeton. Staff

CLA 212 - Classical Mythology (also GSS 212/HLS 212/HUM 212) Fall LA

A study of classical myths in their cultural context and in their wider application to abiding human concerns (such as creation, generation, sex and gender, identity, heroic experience, death, and transformations). A variety of approaches for understanding the mythic imagination and symbol formation through literature, art, and film. Two lectures, one preceptorial. K. Stergiopoulou

CLA 213 - The Formation of Christian Art (also ART 316/HLS 316) HALA

CLA 214 - The Other Side of Rome (also CHV 214) Not offered this year EM

An introduction to Roman culture emphasizing tensions within Roman imperial ideology, the course explores attitudes toward issues such as gender and sexuality, conspicuous consumption, and ethnicity through the works of authors such as Petronius, Lucan, and Tacitus. It also considers the role of cinematic representations of ancient Rome in 20th-century America. Two lectures, one preceptorial. A. Feldherr

CLA 216 - Archaic and Classical Greece (also HIS 216) Spring HA

A formative episode in Western civilization: the Greeks from the rise of the city-state, through the conflict between Athens and Sparta, to the emergence of Macedon in the fourth century B.C. Emphasis on cultural history, political thought, and the development of techniques of historical interpretation through analysis of original sources (Herodotus, Thucydides, and others). Two lectures, one preceptorial. M. Domingo Gygax

CLA 217 - The Greek World in the Hellenistic Age (also HIS 217/HLS 217) Not offered this year HA

The Greek experience from Alexander the Great through Cleopatra. An exploration of the dramatic expansion of the Greek world into the Near East brought about by the conquests and achievements of Alexander. Study of the profound political, social, and intellectual changes that stemmed from the interaction of the cultures, and the entrance of Greece into the sphere of Rome. Readings include history, biography, religious narrative, comedy, and epic poetry. Two lectures, one preceptorial. M. Domingo Gygax

CLA 218 - The Roman Republic (also HIS 218) Not offered this year HA

A study of the causes and unforeseen consequences of one small city-state's rise to world-empire, primarily through the analysis of ancient sources (including Livy, Polybius, Caesar, and Cicero) in translation. Emphasis on the development of Roman society and the evolution, triumph, and collapse of the republican government that it produced. Two lectures, one preceptorial. D. Padilla Peralta

CLA 219 - The Roman Empire, 31 B.C. to A.D. 337 (also HIS 219) Fall HA

A study of the profound transformation of Rome by the multicultural empire it had conquered, ending with the triumph of Christianity. Emphasis on typical social and cultural institutions and on the legacies of Rome to us. Ancient sources in translation include documents, histories, letters, and novels. Two lectures, one preceptorial. D. Padilla Peralta

CLA 223 - Hellenism: The First 3000 Years (also HIS 222/HLS 222) Fall CDLA

CLA 231 - Ancient Greek and Roman Medicine: Bodies, Physicians, and Patients (also GHP 331/HIS 231/HLS 231) Not offered this year EMHA

Where does medicine begin in the West? In this course, we will go back to the earliest medical texts written in ancient Greece that try to give an account of disease as a natural phenomenon that happens inside the biological body. Our aim is not simply to reconstruct the theories of health and disease that these authors put forth. It is also to see the kinds of questions and problems that arise when healers take responsibility for the care and treatment of bodies. B. Holmes

CLA 248 - The Lost World of Ancient Judaism (also JDS 246/NES 246/REL 246) Fall HA

CLA 252 - Jesus: How Christianity Began (also HLS 252/REL 252) Not offered this year EC

CLA 301 - Political Theory, Athens to Augustine (also HLS 303/PHI 353/POL 301) Fall EM

CLA 302 - The Art of the Iron Age: The Near East and Early Greece (also ART 301/HLS 301) Not offered this year LA

CLA 303 - Aristotle and His Successors (also HLS 302/PHI 301) Spring EC

CLA 306 - Classical Athens: Art and Institutions (also ART 306) Not offered this year LA

CLA 320 - Topics in Medieval Greek Literature (also GSS 320/HLS 320/MED 320) Not offered this year LA

The subject of this course will be medieval Greek Romantic fiction. We will read translations of the four surviving novels written in twelfth-century Constantinople in a bid to answer questions about the link between eroticism and the novel, truth and invention in the middle ages, who read fiction and why, and what role, if any, did the medieval or Byzantine Romances have in the story of the European novel. Above all, we will seek to recover some of the pleasure felt by the medieval readers and audiences of these novels. E. Bourbouhakis

CLA 323 - Self and Society in Classical Greek Drama (also COM 323) Not offered this year LA

Designed to give students who are without knowledge of the Greek language the opportunity to read widely and deeply in the field of Greek drama, with particular emphasis on an intensive study of Greek tragedy, its origins and development, staging, structure, and meanings. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff

CLA 324 - Classical Historians and Their Philosophies of History (also HIS 328/HLS 322) Spring HA

Major classical historians, especially Herodotus and Thucydides, are studied in connection with the theory and practice of the art or science of history. Lectures and preceptorials treat the development of historical writing and its relationship to philosophy, politics, literature, and science, and problems such as that of fact and interpretation in historical writing. Two lectures, one preceptorial. M. Domingo Gygax

CLA 325 - Roman Law Not offered this year HA

The historical development of Roman law and its influence on modern legal systems. Particular attention is given to the fundamental principles of Roman private law, including the law of persons, property, inheritance, and contract; and there is a close analysis of courtroom procedure. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

CLA 326 - Topics in Ancient History (also HIS 326/HLS 373/HUM 324) Spring HA

A period, problem, or theme in ancient history or religion with critical attention to the ancient sources and modern discussions. The topic and instructor vary from year to year. Format will change each time, depending on enrollment. C. Cheung

CLA 327 - Topics in Ancient History (also HIS 327) Not offered this year HA

A period, problem, or theme in ancient history or religion with critical attention to the ancient sources and modern discussions. The topic and instructor vary from year to year. Format will change each time, depending on enrollment. Staff

CLA 329 - Sex and Gender in the Ancient World (also GSS 331) Spring SA

The theoretical and ideological bases of the Western attitudes toward sex and gender categories in their formative period in the Greco-Roman world through the study of myth and ritual, archaeology, art, literature, philosophy, science, medicine, law, economics, and historiography. Selected readings in classical and modern texts. M. Haynes

CLA 330 - Greek Law and Legal Practice (also CHV 330/HLS 340) Fall EM

The development of Greek legal traditions, from Homer to the Hellenistic age. The course focuses on the relationship between ideas about justice, codes of law, and legal practice (courtroom trials, arbitration), and the development of legal theory. Two 90-minute seminars. M. Domingo Gygax

CLA 334 - Modern Transformations of Classical Themes (also COM 334/HLS 367) Not offered this year LA

A special topic concerning the adaptation of one or more classical themes in contemporary culture through media such as literature, film, and music. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff

CLA 335 - Studies in the Classical Tradition (also COM 390/ENG 235/HLS 335) Spring LA

A classical genre or literary theme will be studied as it was handed down and transformed in later ages, for example, the European epic; ancient prose fiction and the picaresque tradition; the didactic poem. Two 90-minute seminars. K. Stergiopoulou

CLA 338 - Topics in Classical Thought (also HLS 368/PHI 389) Fall EC

The ancients were fascinated by dreams and debated a variety of views about the nature, origin, and function of dreams. Are dreams divine messages about the future, our souls' indications of impending diseases, or just distorted versions of earlier thoughts? Do dreams have meaning and if so, how can we understand them? We will explore ancient approaches to dreams and their enigmas in literature and philosophy, medical texts, and religious practices. Although our focus will be on Greek and Roman texts, we will also pay attention to earlier Near Eastern sources as well as modern dream theories from Freud to scientific dream research. M. Kotwick

CLA 340 - Junior Seminar: Introduction to Classics Fall HA

This course will introduce concentrators to the study of classical antiquity. Students will become acquainted with different fields of study within the Department, including literature, ancient history, ancient culture, linguistics, and reception studies; gain experience in the methods of their chosen area(s) of study; and acquire an understanding of the history of the discipline and its place in the twenty-first century. Sessions will involve guest visits from members of the faculty. Particular attention will be paid to acquiring the skills necessary to pursue independent research and the selection of a topic for the spring Junior Paper. D. Mairhofer

CLA 343 - The Formation of the Christian West (also HIS 343/HLS 343/MED 343) Fall HA

CLA 344 - The Civilization of the High Middle Ages (also HIS 344/MED 344) Spring HA

CLA 352 - God, Satan, Goddesses, and Monsters: How Their Stories Play in Art, Culture, and Politics (also ENG 442/HIS 353/REL 350) Not offered this year CDEC

CLA 405 - Akkadian (also NES 405) Not offered this year LA

This course offers an introduction to Akkadian, the language of ancient Babylon. The first half of the course introduces students to the basic concepts of Akkadian (old Babylonian) grammar and the cuneiform script. In the second half students consolidate their knowledge of the language by reading selections from classic Babylonian texts, such as the famous law code of King Hammurabi and the Epic of Gilgamesh. J. Haubold

CLG 101 - Beginner's Ancient Greek Fall

Reading in the language is combined throughout with the learning of forms, vocabulary, and syntax. A foundation is built in classical vocabulary and grammar during the first term as a base for the student in the continuing course, Greek 102. Four classes. No credit is given for CLG 101 unless followed by CLG 102. M. Haynes

CLG 102 - Beginner's Ancient Greek Continued Spring

The study of vocabulary, grammar, and syntax is continued from 101 by intensive reading in Attic prose of the classical period. Authors such as Plato are read. Four classes. M. Flower

CLG 103 - Ancient Greek: An Intensive Introduction Spring

An intensive introduction to the essentials of Greek grammar. Students will begin reading Attic prose as quickly as possible. 103 covers the material of 101-102 in a shorter period through increased class-time, drills, and earlier exposure to actual Greek texts. Leads directly to 105. Five classes. E. Bourbouhakis

CLG 105 - Socrates Fall

The life and teaching of Socrates based upon the evidence of Plato and Xenophon. Aristophanes's Clouds may also be read in English, with some excerpts in Greek. Includes a review of the grammar of Attic prose. Prerequisite: 102 or 103, or instructor's permission. Four classes. M. Flower

CLG 108 - Homer Spring

The course consists of extensive reading in the Iliad supplemented by lectures and study assignments directed to Homer's literary art and to the moral and religious thought of the Homeric epics. Four classes. Prerequisite: 103, or the equivalent. B. Graziosi

CLG 213 - Tragic Drama Fall LA

The tragic drama of the last three decades of the fifth century B.C. Normally one tragedy each by Euripides and Sophocles is read in Greek, with other texts and critical work in English. Two 90-minute seminars. J. Billings

CLG 214 - Greek Prose Authors Spring LA

Deals with a major topic in Greek literature or cultural history with readings from several of the most important Greek authors. Three hours. Prerequisite: Greek 108 or equivalent. Alternates with 213. E. Bourbouhakis

CLG 240 - Introduction to Post-Classical Greek from the Late Antique to the Byzantine Era (also HLS 240/MED 240) Not offered this year LA

Readings will focus on historical, literary, philosophical, or religious texts with a range from the Hellenistic to the Byzantine periods. Two 90-minute seminars. M. Kotwick

CLG 301 - Plato Not offered this year LA

Reading of selected dialogues with lectures on various aspects of the Platonic philosophy. Two 90-minute seminars. B. Holmes

CLG 302 - Greek Tragedy Not offered this year LA

Three tragedies are read in class; others (both in Greek and English) are assigned as outside reading. The preceptorials deal with general discussions of tragedy, including Aristotle's Poetics. Two 90-minute seminars. B. Holmes

CLG 304 - Greek Historians Not offered this year HA

Intensive study of a major historical author, such as Herodotus or Thucydides, with special attention to narrative technique and historiographical principles. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff

CLG 305 - Greek Comedy Not offered this year LA

Several plays of Aristophanes are read in the original (for example, Acharnians, Clouds) and others in translation. The emphasis of the course is on the language and verbal effects of the comedies, and on the connections of Old Comedy with Euripidean tragedy, contemporary politics, and philosophy. Consideration is also given to New Comedy, with selections from Menander's Dyskolos in Greek. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff

CLG 306 - Greek Rhetoric: Theory and Practice Not offered this year HA

An introduction to the major techniques of Greek rhetoric with special attention to rhetorical treatises such as Aristotle's Rhetoric and to the application of these techniques in oratory and other literary forms. Staff

CLG 307 - Homer and the Epic Tradition Not offered this year LA

All of the Odyssey is read in English and a considerable portion is read in Greek. Classes include close translation of key passages and reports on special topics. Emphasis is upon literary interpretation of the epic on the basis of detailed analysis of epic style, diction, and narrative techniques. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff

CLG 308 - The Lyric Age of Greece Not offered this year LA

Major texts of the Greek lyric age in their cultural and literary setting. An author such as Hesiod or Pindar may be selected for intensive treatment. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff

CLG 310 - Topics in Greek Literature Not offered this year LA

The subject matter of the course will vary from year to year depending on the interests of the instructor and students. The reading may concentrate on one or more authors, a theme, a genre, a personality, or an event. B. Holmes

LAT 101 - Beginner's Latin Fall

The course is designed to introduce the student with no previous training in the language to the basics of grammar, vocabulary, and syntax. A foundation is built in the first term for continuation in the spring-term course, 102. Four classes. No credit is given for LAT 101 unless followed by LAT 102. Staff

LAT 102 - Beginner's Latin Continued Spring

The study of grammar, vocabulary, and syntax is continued from Latin 101. Reading in basic prose works by authors such as Cicero or Caesar completes the course. Four classes. H. Flower

LAT 103 - Latin: An Intensive Introduction Spring

An intensive introduction to the Latin language that covers the material of 101-102 in a shorter time through increased class time and drills. Students completing the course will be prepared to take LAT 105. Four classes, one drill. M. Haynes

LAT 104 - Intensive Intermediate Latin Not offered this year

An alternative to Latin 105, offering more review of Latin grammar and syntax. Also designed as an introduction to Latin literature through selected readings in poetry and prose. Five classes. Staff

LAT 105 - Intermediate Latin: Catullus and His Age Fall

Selections from the poems of Catullus and from Cicero's Pro Caelio form the core of the reading. 105 is a continuation of 102 and is designed as an introduction to Latin literature. Important grammatical and syntactical principles are reviewed. Four classes. Prerequisite: 102 or equivalent. Y. Baraz

LAT 108 - Constructing Imperial Identities in Prose and Verse Spring

The reading will be composed of excerpts from the early books of Livy's History of Rome, together with selections from Vergil's Aeneid (such as Book 4 or 8). The course introduces the student to two major works of the Augustan Age and gives advanced instruction in the Latin language. Fulfills the A.B. language requirement. Four classes. Prerequisite: 104, 105, or equivalent. P. Kelly

LAT 203 - Introduction to Augustan Literature Not offered this year LA

Readings from Ovid, particularly his love poetry and his "epic,'' the Metamorphoses, as well as from other poets (such as Horace, Tibullus, and Propertius). Three hours. Prerequisite: 108 or equivalent. M. Haynes

LAT 204 - Readings in Latin Literature (also GSS 204) Not offered this year LA

The course will deal with a major topic in Roman cultural history or Latin literature, with readings from three or four of the most important Latin authors.This course may be taken for credit more than once, provided different topics are treated. Three hours. Prerequisite: 108 or equivalent. M. Haynes

LAT 205 - Roman Letters Not offered this year LA

A careful reading of a selection of Latin letters in prose and verse by Cicero, Horace, Ovid, Pliny, and others in order to understand the place this important form of communication held in Roman culture. Prerequisite: 108 or permission of instructor. Two 90-minute classes. Staff

LAT 210 - Invective, Slander, and Insult in Latin Literature Fall LA

This course aims to build skills in reading literary Latin in a variety of genres, both poetry and prose, while introducing students to an important social function shared by many types of texts: winning status and prestige by slandering a rival. The substance of this invective--the kind of insult that wins over an audience--can also tell us much about Roman values in various realms of public and personal behavior. Prerequisite: LAT 108 or instructor's permission. Seminar. P. Kelly

LAT 232 - Introduction to Medieval Latin Spring LA

Intended for students in any field interested in the Latin Middle Ages. Readings will include a wide variety of prose and poetry from the fourth to the 14th centuries. Attention will be given both to improving reading skills and to acquiring essential background information and critical method. Two 90-minute seminars. Prerequisite: 108 or equivalent. D. Mairhofer

LAT 234 - Latin Language and Stylistics Not offered this year LA

Study of the development of literary Latin (predominantly prose), with translation to and from Latin. Syntactic and stylistic analysis of sections of such authors as Cicero, Sallust, Seneca. Translations of brief portions of major authors, with practice in thematically related composition. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff

LAT 302 - Topics in Medieval Italian Literature and Culture (also ITA 302) LA

LAT 330 - Cicero Not offered this year LA

The course will present a representative selection from Cicero's enormous literary production. The specific texts studied will differ from year to year, but will normally include extensive reading from at least two of the three main genres of Cicero's prose works: essays, letters, and orations. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff

LAT 331 - Horace Not offered this year LA

Selected Odes, Epodes, Satires, and Epistles are read with emphasis on Horace's relation to Greek poetry, his poetic techniques and originality, his ethical and literary views, his portrayal of the life and culture of Augustan Rome, and his influence upon English poetry. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff

LAT 332 - Roman Drama Not offered this year LA

The course will concentrate on a single author (for example, Plautus) or will survey the development and technique of the drama in Rome, with major emphasis on comedy. Two 90-minute seminars. Y. Baraz

LAT 333 - Vergil's Aeneid Not offered this year LA

An intensive study of the Aeneid, with focus on literary values but also with consideration of political and social factors, literary ancestry, and influence. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff

LAT 334 - Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics Not offered this year LA

Critical reading and literary analysis of Vergil's cycle of 10 pastoral poems (Eclogues) and of the four books of Georgics. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff

LAT 335 - Roman Literature: Selected Author or Authors Not offered this year LA

The subject matter of the course will vary from year to year, depending on the interests of the instructor and students. The reading may concentrate on one or more authors, a theme, a genre, a personality, or an event. Two 90-minute seminars. A. Feldherr

LAT 336 - Epicureanism and Stoicism Not offered this year EM

A study of the two main philosophical schools of the Republic and Early Empire: Epicureanism and Stoicism. Readings (in Latin) will be selected from Lucretius, Cicero, and Seneca, supplemented by selections from Greek sources in English translation. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff

LAT 337 - Roman Republican Historians Not offered this year HA

Selections of historians' works are read that illustrate topics such as the historian's use of sources, historical outlook, narrative techniques, style, and reliability. Sample historians of the Republic who may be read are Livy, Sallust, and Caesar, depending on the interests of the instructor and students. Two 90-minute seminars. H. Flower

LAT 338 - Latin Prose Fiction Not offered this year LA

A critical study of Latin fiction such as Petronius's Satyricon and Apuleius's Metamorphoses (Golden Ass). Although the chief emphasis will be on the literary aspects of these influential works, some attention will also be given to their value as social and religious documents of their time. Two 90-minute classes. M. Haynes

LAT 339 - Roman Historians of the Empire Not offered this year HA

An examination of historians' approaches to history and their literary merits; sample historians to be surveyed include Tacitus, Suetonius, and Velleius Paterculus; sample topics to be covered include their views of autocracy (nature and effects) and of Roman civilization (value, influence, shortcomings). Two 90-minute classes. D. Padilla Peralta

LAT 340 - Roman Satire Fall LA

Selected satires of Horace, Juvenal, and Persius are read. Classes emphasize translation, stylistic analysis, and explication of the texts. There are also reports on special topics such as the origins and development of satire at Rome, and at least one in-depth interpretation by each student of a selected individual passage. Two 90-minute seminars. Y. Baraz

LAT 342 - Roman Elegy from Catullus to Ovid Not offered this year LA

Selections from Latin elegy. Students will read the fourth book of Propertius and sections of Ovid's Fasti, together with other elegies. Focuses on the poetic presentation of the metropolis of Rome, its history, religion, and urban life. Two 90-minute classes. Staff

MOG 101 - Elementary Modern Greek I (also HLS 101) Fall

MOG 102 - Elementary Modern Greek II (also HLS 102) Spring

MOG 105 - Intermediate Modern Greek (also HLS 105) Fall

MOG 107 - Advanced Modern Greek (also HLS 107) Spring