Near Eastern Studies

Program Offerings

Offering type

The Department of Near Eastern Studies offers a liberal arts major designed to give students competence in a Near Eastern language and broad knowledge of the literatures, civilizations, politics and history of the late ancient, medieval and modern Near East (comprising Afghanistan, the Arab countries, Central Asia, Iran, Israel, Islamic Africa, South Asia and Turkey). Accordingly, a plan of study is built around departmental and cognate courses in history, literature, religion, law, anthropology, politics, economics and public policy, combined with the study of one or more Near Eastern languages (Arabic, Hebrew, Persian or Turkish), determined by the student's interest. In addition to serving as the focal point of a broad liberal arts education, the Near Eastern studies major can be the basis for graduate or professional study in a range of fields in the humanities and social sciences. The department's many small classes and seminars allow extensive student/teacher interaction and equip students to pursue careers in business, finance, economics, international affairs, government, diplomacy, journalism and public policy.

Departmental majors achieve a broad understanding of the varieties of regions, cultures and religions of the Near East in the more distant past as well as in the modern period. Students gain the tools of the multiple disciplines employed by scholars of Near Eastern studies. The department’s curricular guidelines help ensure that students reach these objectives while also giving them significant flexibility to forge their own educational paths in the department.

Goals for Student Learning

The Department of Near Eastern Studies introduces students to the study of the history, languages, religions, literatures, politics and cultures of the Near East region, broadly defined to include not just the Middle East (the Arab world, Turkey, Israel and Iran), but also North Africa, South Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. As an area studies department, our perspective on the region is multidisciplinary, drawing upon a range of approaches from the humanities and the social sciences. NES majors gain an understanding of the region through courses that cover a range of time periods, regional interests and disciplinary methods. 

Students in Near Eastern Studies will gain competence in one or more Near Eastern language, acquiring core communication skills and learning to conduct research in primary sources in Arabic, Turkish, Persian and/or Hebrew. NES students learn to view the region through multiple lenses, learning to think transhistorically through coursework that focuses on both the premodern and the modern periods, and to engage in interdisciplinary projects through exposure to diverse academic approaches. Through this approach, students are encouraged to go beyond the headlines, thinking critically about the representation of the Near East in academic and popular settings. Beyond core training in language and area studies, students pursue their research through a course of study tailored to their own regional and disciplinary interests. In their independent work, students have the opportunity to engage in original archival and field research. By focusing on skills like the close reading of primary sources, formal analysis of visual and material culture, conducting archival and field research, and clear expression in both oral and written presentation, students are trained to conduct analysis on the Near East in multiple settings, including academia, government, the public and private sectors and social organizations.

Advanced Placement

Advanced placement is available in all of the languages offered by the department. Students seeking advanced placement in Arabic should follow the procedures for online language placement testing on Canvas. Students seeking advanced placement in Persian or Turkish should consult the director of undergraduate studies to arrange for testing with the appropriate language instructor. Students seeking advanced placement in Hebrew should follow the procedures for online language placement testing on Canvas. A student with a Hebrew subject test score of 760 or a high score on the departmental Hebrew placement examination week will be considered to have satisfied the A.B. language requirement and to be eligible for placement in a 300-level course.


A student who has completed at least one course in the department is eligible to major in Near Eastern studies. This course may be a language class or a course or seminar offered in any of the disciplines covered by the department.

Language Requirements

Students must complete four semesters (i.e., through 107 level) of Arabic, Hebrew, Persian or Turkish. Students are advised to begin their language training as early as possible, and are encouraged, albeit not required, to continue language study at the advanced level and to utilize their chosen Near Eastern language for senior thesis research. The necessary language training for the A.B. degree can be acquired through a combination of language study at Princeton, intensive summer language study and study abroad programs. The department will help each undergraduate major develop a language training schedule appropriate to their planned course of study.

Independent Work

Junior Year

Students write one junior paper over the course of the junior year in consultation with a member of the faculty. Students submit a proposal (including an outline and an annotated bibliography) for their junior independent work in the fall semester and a completed junior paper in the spring semester. Students are encouraged to visit the websites for NES Junior Independent Work Guidelines and important deadlines for the Junior Paper.

Senior Year

Each student prepares a senior thesis in consultation with a member of the faculty. Students are encouraged to visit the websites for NES Senior Thesis Guidelines and important deadlines for the senior thesis.

The choice of junior paper and senior thesis topics must be approved by the student's adviser.

Additional Requirements

Departmental Requirements

Students take eight departmental courses in Near Eastern studies. Up to three of these courses may be from cognate departments, upon approval of the director of undergraduate studies. 

Language courses beyond the second year count as departmentals, courses in a second Near Eastern language at any level (including introductory) may likewise count as departmentals.  

All students are required to take NES 300 (Seminar in Research Methods) in junior year unless they are studying abroad that semester, in which case they are required to take NES 300 in their senior year. 

The remaining seven courses must satisfy the following chronological, regional and disciplinary distribution requirements:

Historical Periods: Students must take at least one course that focuses on the premodern Near East and at least one course that focuses on the modern Near East.

Regions: Students must take two regionally specific courses, with each of the two courses focusing on a different one of the following six subregions of the Near East:

  • Egypt, North Africa, and Andalusia
  • The Levant, Iraq, and the Arabian Peninsula
  • Ottoman Empire/Turkey
  • Iran
  • Muslim South and Central Asia
  • Diasporic communities

Disciplines: Students must take at least one course in two of the following four disciplines:

  • History
  • Literature
  • Social sciences
  • Religion

A single course may satisfy multiple distribution requirements across these domains (historical periods, regions and disciplines). For example, a course focusing on 20th-century Turkish literature may count as modern (historical periods), Ottoman Empire/Turkey (regions), and literature (disciplines). 

A single course may not, however, satisfy more than one distribution requirement within a single domain; thus a course on Arabic literature that spans the premodern and modern periods would not satisfy both the premodern and modern historical periods requirements.

Students who wish to undertake a plan of study that does not meet these guidelines must apply for a waiver from the undergraduate committee. Waivers will be granted only in exceptional cases.

Certificate in Language and Culture

The Department of Near Eastern Studies offers students the opportunity to earn a certificate in one of the area's languages and cultures while majoring in another department.

Certificate Requirements: The certificate is open to undergraduates in all departments. Students should consult the director of undergraduate studies by the end of sophomore year to plan a program of study. Ordinarily, students majoring in language and literature departments, including comparative literature, will be eligible for the certificate in language and culture provided that: (a) the linguistic base for the language and culture certificate is different from the linguistic base of the major; and (b) the work required for the language and culture certificate does not duplicate the requirements of the major. Students pursuing area studies certificates may earn the certificate in language and culture provided that: (a) the courses they elect to satisfy the requirements of the area studies program are different from those they elect to satisfy the requirements of the language and culture certificate program; and (b) they submit a piece of independent work in addition to the independent work that satisfies the requirements of the area studies program and the home department. The requirements for work done in the Department of Near Eastern Studies are:

  1. Studying one of the languages taught in the department — Arabic, Hebrew, Persian, Turkish — beyond the level required for completion of the University language requirement.
  2. Completing at least three departmental courses at the 300 level or higher in language, literature or culture that involve extensive use of the designated language.
  3. Completing a piece of independent work that makes substantive use of a Near Eastern language. Most often this is a substantial research paper (approximately 7,000 words) written under the supervision of a member of the department.

In addition to 300- and 400-level language courses, any graduate courses open to qualified undergraduates may be used to satisfy the departmental requirements above with the permission of the director of undergraduate studies.

Finally, a course (including courses on literature in translation) in which the student arranges with the instructor to do substantial reading in their designated language may also count toward the certificate in language and culture. This must be arranged on a case-by-case basis with the instructor involved.

Any questions regarding the certificate in language and culture should be addressed to the director of undergraduate studies.


  • Chair

    • Behrooz Ghamari-Tabrizi
  • Director of Undergraduate Studies

    • Daniel J. Sheffield
  • Director of Graduate Studies

    • Marina Rustow
  • Professor

    • Michael A. Cook
    • Behrooz Ghamari-Tabrizi
    • M. Sükrü Hanioglu
    • Bernard A. Haykel
    • Hossein Modarressi
    • Marina Rustow
    • Muhammad Q. Zaman
  • Associate Professor

    • Jonathan M. Gribetz
    • Lara Harb
    • Eve Krakowski
    • Michael A. Reynolds
    • Daniel J. Sheffield
  • Assistant Professor

    • Satyel Larson
  • Associated Faculty

    • Molly Greene, History
    • Amaney A. Jamal, Politics
    • Lital Levy, Comparative Literature
    • Shaun E. Marmon, Religion
    • Sabine Schmidtke, Near Eastern Studies
    • Jack B. Tannous, History
  • Senior Lecturer

    • Gregory J. Bell
    • Nancy A. Coffin
  • Lecturer

    • Yasmina Abouzzohour
    • Nilüfer Hatemi
    • Philip Hollander
    • George A. Kiraz
    • Amineh Mahallati
    • Mounia Mnouer
    • Faris Zwirahn
  • Visiting Lecturer with Rank of Professor

    • Sabine Schmidtke

For a full list of faculty members and fellows please visit the department or program website.


ARA 101 - Elementary Arabic I Fall

Students in this course will develop their skills in speaking, hearing, reading, and writing Modern Standard Arabic, the form of the Arabic language shared by all Arab countries. The course covers phonics, the alphabet and numerals, as well as noun-adjective agreement and how to form sentences using past and present tense verbs. Also covered: greetings and courtesy phrases in spoken Arabic. Five classes, one hour of drill. No credit is given for ARA 101 unless followed by ARA 102. Staff

ARA 102 - Elementary Arabic II Spring

Continuation of 101. Students will expand their language skills through conversational and grammatical exercises based on the audio-visual approach. Students will be able to speak and write simply and accurately about topics such as daily activities, studies, family members, and hopes and plans for the future. Five classes, one hour of drill. Staff

ARA 105 - Intermediate Arabic I Fall

Building upon the skills gained in 101 and 102, this course offers further practice in speaking and listening and increases proficiency in reading and writing. Topics to be covered include use of dual and feminine plural forms; conditional sentences; use of superlatives and comparatives; and the study of case markings in formal written Arabic. Five classes, one hour of drill. Staff

ARA 107 - Intermediate Arabic II

Continuation of 105. Students will expand their reading, writing, speaking, and oral comprehension skills through oral and written exercises involving more sophisticated texts derived from authentic newspaper and journal sources. Five classes, one hour of drill. Staff

ARA 111 - Colloquial Arabic I Not offered this year

An introduction to a specific spoken dialect of the Arabic language. This course currently focuses on the Arabic dialects used in the Levant, especially Palestinian and Lebanese dialects. The material of the course is designed to promote functional usage of the language stressing vocabulary and grammar in conversation of everyday life. Four classes. N. Coffin

ARA 113 - Colloquial Arabic II Not offered this year

A continuation of ARA 111. Focusing on Arabic dialects used in the Levant, especially Palestinian and Lebanese dialects, the material of the course further develops functional usage of the language stressing vocabulary and grammar in conversation of everyday life. N. Coffin

ARA 301 - Advanced Arabic I Fall

Reading and accurate translation of numerous selections from modern Arabic works as well as reading for general understanding of simple prose, mostly from newspapers and magazines. Review of morphology, introduction to the systematic study of syntax. Speaking about the readings and about other assigned topics. English to Arabic translation. Emphasis on building vocabulary. Two 90-minute classes, two periods of drill. Staff

ARA 302 - Advanced Arabic II Not offered this year

Continuation of 301. Class reading of more sophisticated discursive prose and short stories. Class discussion in Arabic of assigned texts not translated in class. Emphasis on the systematic study of syntax. Increased emphasis on speaking about a variety of topics. Arabic composition. Two 90-minute classes, two periods of drill. Staff

ARA 401 - Advanced Arabic Skills Workshop Not offered this year LA

This course develops to a more advanced and natural level the linguistic skills of listening, speaking, and reading through the reading and class discussion of lengthy texts, primarily literary ones. Term papers written in Arabic provide the opportunity to improve composition, and aural comprehension is honed through the use of tapes of Arabic broadcasts, and through viewing films from various parts of the Arab world. Prerequisite: 301 or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute classes. Staff

ARA 403 - Topics in Arabic Language and Culture Fall LA

This course is designed as an advanced, fourth-year course in Arabic language and culture which may be repeated up to two times, provided the topic is different each time. The course is intended to appeal to students who prefer to study in an Arabic immersion environment, and all aspects of the course will be conducted in Arabic. Staff

ARA 404 - Topics in Arabic Language and Culture Not offered this year LA

Introduces the conventions of major genres of history, belles-lettres and religious thought of the Abbasid era (750-1258 CE). Primary emphasis on reading comprehension and developing confidence in approaching classical sources. Conducted in Arabic, apart from translation exercises, and will also develop skills in writing, through projects, and speaking, through discussions and presentations. Course is divided into one or two-week units, focusing on excerpts from major texts. Students to complete major reading/writing project on a text of choosing. Staff

HEB 101 - Elementary Hebrew I Fall

Introductory course develops skills of reading, speaking, comprehension, and writing through various techniques, with an emphasis on a solid grammatical basis and awareness of idiomatic usage of the language. Teaching materials include ones developed in Israel. Five classes. No credit is given for HEB 101 unless followed by HEB 102. Staff

HEB 102 - Elementary Hebrew II Spring

A continuation of 101, with emphasis on the development of all skills. The course will expose students to contemporary Israeli culture by using authentic material such as films, TV series, newspaper articles, and Web-based material. Class activities include role-playing, drills, group discussion, and oral presentations. Five classes. Staff

HEB 105 - Intermediate Hebrew I Fall

Expansion of reading, oral, aural, and written skills, as well as coverage of more advanced grammar. Students will be gradually introduced to contemporary Israeli prose and poetry. Maximum participation by students is encouraged through discussion of readings and films. Five classes. Staff

HEB 107 - Intermediate Hebrew II Spring

A continuation of 105, covering remainder of grammar. Further explores contemporary Israeli prose, poetry, and more complex essays from textbooks and photocopied material. Five classes. Staff

HEB 301 - Advanced Hebrew Language and Style I LA

For advanced students, this course seeks to improve further the active command of written and spoken Hebrew through work with a variety of literary texts, styles, and artistic expressions, including film. Topics are selected to explore fundamental issues of Israeli culture and society. Prerequisite: 107 or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute classes. Staff

HEB 302 - Advanced Hebrew Language and Style II LA

Continuation of 301. Growing emphasis on individual and small group work. Students prepare final project of their choosing in consultation with instructor. Prerequisite: 301 or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute classes. Staff

NES 201 - Introduction to the Middle East (also HIS 223) HA

An overview of the history of the Middle East from the rise of Islam to the present day with a focus on the "core" of the Middle East, i.e., the region defined by present-day Turkey and Egypt to the west, Iran to the east, and Arabia to the south. Issues raised include difficulties in the study of foreign cultures, religion and society, the interplay between local and global processes, identity formation, and the Middle East in the broader world. One lecture, two classes. M. Cook

NES 202 - Contemporary Arabic Literature in Translation Not offered this year LA

A survey of the literature of the modern Arab world, starting with the late 19th century and continuing up to within the last five years. Narrative (novel and short story), theater, poetry, as well as (briefly) folk literature will be treated. Works are assigned in English translation, but students who are able to read them in Arabic are welcome to do so. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Offered in alternate years. N. Coffin

NES 205 - The Art and Archaeology of the Ancient Near East and Egypt (also AFS 202/ART 200) Not offered this year LA

NES 214 - Masterworks of Hebrew Literature in Translation (also JDS 214) Not offered this year LA

An introduction to modern Hebrew literature, represented by selected translations from major works of the last hundred years, in prose (Agnon, Almog, Izhar, Kahana-Carmon, Mendele, Oz, and Yehoshua) and in poetry (Alterman, Amichai, Bialik, Rabikovitch, Zach, and others). Two 90-minute classes. Staff

NES 220 - Jews, Muslims, and Christians in the Middle Ages (also HIS 220/JDS 220/MED 220) Not offered this year HA

An introduction to the history and culture of the Jews in the Middle Ages (under Islam and Christendom) covering, comparatively, such topics as the interrelationship between Judaism and the other two religions, interreligious polemics, political (legal) status, economic role, communal self-government, family life, and cultural developments. Two 90-minute classes. Staff

NES 221 - Jerusalem Contested: A City's History from Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Perspectives (also JDS 223) CDHA

Jerusalem is considered a holy city to three faiths: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In this course, students will learn the history of Jerusalem from its founding in pre-biblical times until the present. Over the course of the semester, we will ask: What makes space sacred and how does a city become holy? What has been at stake - religiously, theologically, politically, nationally - in the many battles over Jerusalem? What is the relationship between Jerusalem as it was and Jerusalem as it was (and is) imagined? J. Gribetz

NES 230 - Early Islamic Art and Architecture (also ART 230) Not offered this year LA

NES 232 - The Arts of the Islamic World (also ART 232) Not offered this year LA

NES 235 - War, Martyrdom and Sacrifice in the Islamic Tradition (also REL 235) EM

NES 236 - Introduction to Islam (also REL 236) SA

NES 240 - Muslims and the Qur'an (also REL 240) Fall EM

A broad-ranging introduction to pre-modern, modern, and contemporary Islam in light of how Muslims have approached their foundational religious text, the Qur'an. Topics include: Muhammad and the emergence of Islam; theology, law and ethics; war and peace; mysticism; women and gender; and modern debates on Islamic reform. This course examines the varied contexts in which Muslims have interpreted their sacred text, their agreements and disagreements on what it means, and more broadly, their often competing understandings of Islam and of what it is to be a Muslim. Three classes. M. Zaman

NES 244 - Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: Their Emergence in Antiquity (also JDS 245/MED 246/REL 244) Fall EMHA

NES 246 - The Lost World of Ancient Judaism (also CLA 248/JDS 246/REL 246) Fall HA

NES 267 - History of Palestine/Israel (also HIS 267) Spring HA

NES 268 - Political Islam Not offered this year HA

For decades scholars predicted that as nations modernized, religion and its corresponding institutions would become increasingly irrelevant. No phenomenon has discredited the secularization thesis more than the powerful resurgence of Islamist movements that began in the 1970s. Given the rapid social and economic development experienced by most Muslim countries, why has political Islam emerged as the most potent force of political opposition in all of these countries? To address this question, the course examines the origins and discourse of political Islam and the goals and organization of Islamist groups. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

NES 269 - The Politics of Modern Islam (also POL 353) Not offered this year HA

An examination of the political dimensions of Islam, involving a study of the nature of Islamic political theory, the relationship between the religious and political establishments, the characteristics of an Islamic state, the radicalization of Sunni and Shi'i thought, and the compatibility of Islam and the nation-state, democracy, and constitutionalism, among other topics. Students will be introduced to the complex and polemical phenomenon of political Islam, using examples drawn mainly, though not exclusively, from cases and writings from the Middle East. Two lectures, one preceptorial. B. Haykel

NES 300 - Seminar in Research Methods Fall SA

Introduces advanced undergraduates to the basic methods of research and analysis in history and the social sciences as well as to fundamental debates in the field of Near Eastern Studies. Topics addressed include causality, research design, case studies, selection bias, historicism, Orientalism, ethnography, textual analysis, and the ethics of research. E. Krakowski

NES 315 - War and Politics in the Modern Middle East SA

Drawing on case studies of Middle Eastern wars, this course examines the changing nature of warfare from the second half of the 20th century through the present day. It begins with Clausewitz's theory of war and examples of conventional state warfare in the Middle East, then moves on to cases of insurgency and so-called fouth generation warfare and uses them to test Clausewitz's ideas and less state-centric alternatives. Two 90-minute classes. M. Reynolds

NES 322 - Politics of the Middle East (also POL 364) Fall SA

NES 331 - Women, Gender, and the Body in Islamic Societies (also GSS 328/REL 328) Fall SA

NES 334 - Modern Islamic Political Thought (also REL 334) Not offered this year EM

An examination of major facets of Islamic political thought from the late 19th century to the present in a broadly comparative framework and against the backdrop of medieval Islamic thought. Topics include: the "fragmentation" of religious authority and its consequences for Muslim politics; conceptions of the shari'a and of the Islamic state; and Islamist discourses on gender, violence, and relations with non-Muslims. One three-hour seminar. M. Zaman

NES 336 - Pilgrimage, Travel, and Sacred Space: Muslims, Christians, and Jews in the Land of Islam (also REL 336) Not offered this year HA

NES 337 - The Making of the Modern Middle East Not offered this year HA

An introduction to the political, social and cultural history of the Arabic-speaking Middle East, in addition to Iran, Israel, and Turkey from the late 19th century until the turn of the 21st century. Topics covered include: the end of the Ottoman and Qatar Empires; the integration of the Middle East into the world economy; the establishment of the Middle East state system; the development of political institutions, ideologies and religious revivalist movements; nationalism; women's movements; gender; the spread of political Islam; as well as literature, film and other forms of media.Two lectures, one preceptorial. M. Weiss

NES 338 - The Arab-Israeli Conflict (also HIS 349/JDS 338) Fall EMHA

The history of the Arab-Israeli conflict up to 1967. Due to its contentious theme, it stresses historiographic problems and primary sources; also, it looks at Israeli and Palestinian societies as much as at the conflict between them. Questions include the ideological vs. practical roots of, and religious/secular elements in, Zionism and Palestinian nationalism; politico-economic links between the two societies; breaks in their social and/or ethnic composition; the effects of collective traumas and warfare on socio-political structures and gender; and the role of foreign powers and regional states. Two lectures, one preceptorial. J. Gribetz

NES 339 - Introduction to Islamic Theology (also REL 339) Fall HA

A general survey of the main principles of Islamic doctrine. Focuses on the Muslim theological discourse on the concepts of God and God's attributes, man and nature, the world to come, revelation and prophethood, diversity of religions, and the possibility and actuality of miracles. One three-hour seminar. H. Modarressi

NES 340 - Islam in India and Pakistan (also REL 338) Not offered this year HA

NES 343 - Southeast Asia's Global History (also EAS 342/HIS 342) Spring HA

NES 345 - Introduction to Islamic Law SA

A survey of the history of Islamic law, its developments, and the attempts of the Muslim jurists to come to terms with the challenges of modern time. The course will focus on the issues of constitutional, public, international, and personal laws that have the greatest relevance to the modern era. One three-hour seminar. H. Modarressi

NES 347 - Islamic Family Law (also GSS 386) SA

Examines the outlines of Islamic family law in gender issues, sexual ethics, family structure, family planning, marriage and divorce, parenthood, and child guardianship and custody. Provides a general survey of the Islamic legal system: its history and developments, structure and spirit, and the attempts of the Muslim jurists to adapt law to changing times. One three-hour seminar. H. Modarressi

NES 348 - Islamic Ritual Laws SA

Examines the outlines of Islamic ritual law. Starting with a general survey of pre-modern Islamic legal discourse, the course focuses on such issues as Islamic festivals, religious birth and death rituals, the concepts of worship and sacrifice, and various Islamic acts of devotion in matters such as prayer, fasting, almsgiving, and annual pilgrimage to Mecca. One three-hour seminar. H. Modarressi

NES 350 - The Islamic World from its Emergence to the Beginnings of Westernization (also HIS 245/MED 245) Not offered this year HA

Begins with the formation of the traditional Islamic world in the seventh century and ends with the first signs of its transformation under Western impact in the 18th century. The core of the course is the history of state formation in the Middle East, but other regions and themes make significant appearances. The course can stand on its own or serve as background to the study of the modern Islamic world. Two 90-minute classes. M. Cook

NES 356 - God's Messengers: Prophecy and Revelation in the Islamic Tradition (also REL 335) HA

NES 358 - Modern Turkey Not offered this year HA

An examination of changes currently affecting the Republic of Turkey, including internal and external problems precipitated by factors such as rapid urbanization, growing ethnic conscience, and regional instability. Two 90-minute classes. Staff

NES 362 - Blood, Sex, and Oil: The Caucasus HA

The Caucasus region has served as a contested borderland from time immemorial and has fascinated outsiders for nearly as long. It is today a tense and explosive region. This course surveys the history of both the north and south Caucasus. It begins with an overview of the region's geography, peoples, and religions, and then examines in more detail the history of the Caucasus from the Russian conquest to the present day. Topics covered include ethnic and religious conflict and coexistence, Sovietization, the formation of national identities, and pipeline politics. M. Reynolds

NES 363 - Islamic Social and Political Movements Not offered this year SA

An introduction to the vast number of Islam-inspired sociopolitical movements. An attempt is made to present the contemporary movements in the light of the Islamic tradition of rebellion and revolution. Islamic movements will be surveyed against the historical and social context in which they occurred, with emphasis on the Arab World and Iran. Questions will be raised about the ways in which these movements have been approached and interpreted. Two 90-minute classes. A. Hammoudi

NES 365 - Modern Iran (also POL 368) HA

A general introduction to Iran in the period from the establishment of the Qajar dynasty in the late 18th century to the present day. Particular emphasis will be given to the social and cultural development of Iran under the stimulus of its contacts with the West. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Offered in alternate years. Staff

NES 373 - Zionism: Jewish Nationalism Before and Since Statehood (also JDS 373) Fall EMHA

This course explores why, since the late 18th century, Jews and non-Jews alike have asked if the Jews are a nation and why people answer differently, inviting students to think about the origins of nationalism and the relationship between nations and other groups - religions, 'races,' ethnicities, and states. Learn about those who insisted that the Jews are not a separate nation and consider the different motivations for rejecting the nationhood of the Jews. We will examine the varieties of Jewish nationalisms that arose at the end of the 19th century, including Diaspora nationalism, territorialism, and especially Zionism. J. Gribetz

NES 380 - Politics and Society in the Arabic Novel and Film (also COM 380) LA

NES 389 - Everyday Writing in Medieval Egypt, 600-1500 (also HIS 289/JDS 389/MED 389) CDHA

This class explores medieval Islamic history through everyday documents from Egypt: letters, decrees, contracts, court records, and accounts. We will read a wide range of documents in translation, learn to understand them, and use them to evaluate politics, religion, class, commerce, material history, and family relationships in Egypt from just before the Islamic conquests until just before the Ottoman era. We will also consider documents themselves, as historical artifacts and as historical evidence. Why did medieval people produce and preserve written records? And what does history look like when told through documents? E. Krakowski

NES 405 - Akkadian (also CLA 405) Not offered this year LA

NES 416 - Nation, State, and Empire: The Ottoman, Romanov, and Hapsburg Experiences HA

An exercise in comparative history and the application of theoretical constructs to historical events. Examines a range of theories of nationalism, state, and empire; applies them to the historical records of three multi-ethnic dynastic empires--the Ottoman, Russian, and Austro-Hungarian; explores the ways in which theories can both elucidate and obscure historical processes. Questions of the nature of empire, the rise of nationalism, and the processes of imperial collapse, among others, will be explored. One three-hour seminar. M. Reynolds

NES 419 - Topics in the History of Modern Syria (also COM 438/HIS 419) Not offered this year HA

NES 428 - Representation of Faith and Power: Islamic Architecture in Its Context (also ART 438) Not offered this year LA

NES 433 - Imperialism and Reform in the Middle East and the Balkans (also HIS 433/HLS 434) Fall HA

The major Near Eastern abd Balkan diplomatic crises, the main developments in internal Near Eastern history, and the Eastern Question as perceived by the Great Powers. The focus will be on the possible connections between diplomatic crises and the process of modernization. One three-hour seminar. M. Hanioglu

NES 435 - The Madrasa: Islam, Education, and Politics in the Modern World (also REL 435) Not offered this year EM

Since 9/11, madrasas have often been viewed as sites of indoctrination into Islamic radicalism. This seminar seeks to examine the broad range of institutions to which the term "madrasa" refers in modern Muslim societies, as well as other related institutions of Islamic education. Addresses the transformations they have undergone since the 19th century, and how these institutions shape and are shaped by Muslim politics in varied contexts. One three-hour seminar. M. Zaman

NES 437 - The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1800 (also HIS 337/HLS 337) Fall HA

An analysis of political, economic, and social institutions with emphasis on the problems of continuity and change, the factors allowing for and limiting Ottoman expansion, and Ottoman awareness of Europe. Two 90-minute classes. M. Greene

NES 438 - The Late Ottoman Empire HA

An examination of the Westernization movement; administrative reforms; Young Ottoman, Young Turk, and ethnic-nationalist movements; great diplomatic crises of the 19th and 20th centuries; emergence of modern Turkish republic; and the consequences of the Ottoman collapse. Two 90-minute classes. Offered in alternate years. M. Hanioglu

NES 465 - Political and Economic Development of the Middle East and North Africa (also AFS 465/POL 465) Fall SA

Provides a framework for understanding the political and economic issues that both challenge and encourage development in the Middle East and Northern Africa. Students will think creatively about the issues raised by designing a development project aimed at tackling a specific problem in a Middle Eastern country. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

PER 101 - Elementary Persian I Fall

Introduction to Persian language and culture. By the end of the semester, students will have an overview of Persian grammar and will able to read and converse in Persian at a basic level. Class activities include group discussions, skits, short stories, oral presentations, and comprehension and grammar drills. Class instruction is supplemented with other media such as movies and online Persian news media. Five classes. No credit is given for PER 101 unless followed by PER 102. A. Mahallati

PER 102 - Elementary Persian II Spring

Continuation of 101 with a greater emphasis on reading, writing, and comprehension. By the end of the semester, most instruction will be delivered in Persian, and students will be able to communicate comfortably using everyday language and read more elaborate prose. Class instruction is supplemented with other media such as movies and online Persian news media. Five classes. A. Mahallati

PER 105 - Intermediate Persian I Fall

An introduction to modern Persian prose and poetry. The course introduces advanced grammar while developing communication skills through the discussion of modern and classic novels, movies, and online Persian media (news, weblogs, etc). This class will be conducted mainly in Persian. Prerequisite: 102 or instructor's permission. Five classes. A. Mahallati

PER 107 - Intermediate Persian II Spring

Continuation of 105. Reading and discussion of selected works by major authors. This class will be conducted mainly in Persian. Five classes. A. Mahallati

PER 301 - Introduction to Classical Persian Literature LA

An introduction to the language of classical Persian literature. Intensive reading and discussion of texts by major poets and writers from Rudaki to Hafez. Texts will vary from year to year. Prerequisite: 107 or instructor's permission. Three classes. Staff

PER 302 - Advanced Persian Reading I Fall

Aimed at developing proficiency in reading and communication in Persian, using materials written for native speakers. Texts used include classical Persian novels, modern works, and Persian translations of classical Western works such as Le Petit Prince and Les Miserables. This class will be conducted entirely in Persian. Prerequisite: two years of Persian or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute classes. A. Mahallati

PER 303 - Advanced Persian Reading II: Modern Persian Prose

Continuation of 302. This course is designed to improve students' proficiency in the reading and comprehension of a variety of Persian texts. Prerequisite: two years of Persian or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute classes. A. Mahallati

TUR 101 - Elementary Turkish I Fall

A performance-oriented, multimedia introductory course in modern spoken and written Turkish. Based on authentic input, grammatical properties of the language are introduced. Language skills are developed through communicative activities in class and individualized work with interactive learning aids. Five classes; laboratory required. No credit is given for TUR 101 unless followed by TUR 102. N. Hatemi

TUR 102 - Elementary Turkish II Spring

A continuation of 101. Coverage of basic grammar. There will be a growing emphasis on Turkish culture, reading, and increasing vocabulary. Final exam includes an oral interview. Five classes; laboratory work required. Prerequisite: 101. Students who complete 102 normally place into 105. N. Hatemi

TUR 105 - Intermediate Turkish I Fall

Building on students' knowledge, this course aims to further all language skills through extensive exposure to current news, authentic multimedia sources, and close reading of graded authentic materials. Weekly modules to reinforce more complex language structures. Prerequisite: 102 or permission of the instructor. Five classes; laboratory work recommended as needed. N. Hatemi

TUR 107 - Intermediate Turkish II Spring

A continuation of 105. Emphasis on developing all language skills and cultural understanding. Review of grammar as needed. In addition to exposure to current events, students will be introduced to modern Turkish literature, with close reading of selected prose and poetry. Final exam includes an oral interview. Five classes; laboratory work recommended as needed. N. Hatemi